MASTER OF TEACHING Changing Parental Participation in a Primary School. Challenges and Possibilities. A Case Study of a Primary School in Fiji. RESEARCH PROPOSAL . 2010 AN ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSAL In Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Masters in Teaching University of Fiji LECTURER: ASS. PROF. MR. KENNETH NOBIN HEAD OF DEPARTMENT EDUCATION THE UNIVERSITY OF FIJI SAWENI, LAUTOKA. â€˜You never come in an isolated way; you always come with pieces of the world attached to youâ€™. (Malaguzzi, 1994) NAVEEN KUMAR (ID: S100150)
EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 AB S T R AC T Participatory action research will be conducted to determine whether or not teacherinitiated, regular communication with parents makes an impact on parentsâ€™ participation in school activities, helping children show effectiveness towards teaching and learning outcomes. The goal of me as a teacher researcher is to communicate in native language about school activities and diminish the â€˜barrierâ€™ that limits the teacher parent interaction.
The feeling of much poor participation towards Gandhi Bhawan Primary School has been the poor communication. The purpose is to better the line of communication between home and school. This study will focus on Class 8 students and their parents employing instrumental qualitative research tools that are home visits (interviews), class meetings (focus group) and case study. The challenge is to provide an atmosphere that is user friendly and if parents were struggling with how to best support in school activities they could feel free to contact me.
It is my belief that positive and consistent communication between home and school is important for student transitioning into adulthood. However, the challenges and possibilities faced in the core of the research will be discussed further after its implementation. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 T AB L E O F CO N TE N TS 1. 0 Abstract Background of the Problem 1. 1 Personal Motivation 1. 2 Need for Study 1. Description of Community 1. 4 Description of Work Setting 1. 5 Researcherâ€™s Role Purpose of Study 2. 1 Purpose 2. 2 Aim 2. 3 Research Question Theoretical Framework 3. 1 Defining Parental Involvement 3. 2 Why Parental Involvement 3. 3 Frequency of Parent-Teacher Interaction 3. 4 Type of Parent Involvement 3. 4. 1 Parent in Involvement Process 3. 4. 1. 1 Parent as Audience 3. 4. 1. 2 Parent as Volunteer 3. 4. 1. 3 Parent as Paraprofessional 3. 4. 1. 4 Parent as a teacher of own child 3. 4. 1. 5 Teacher as Decision Maker 3. Significance of Parental Participation 3. 6 Barriers to Parental Involvement 3. 6. 1 Socio economic background 3. 6. 2 Language 3. 6. 3 Parent Literacy 3. 6. 4 Literacy 3. 6. 5 Family Structure 3. 6. 6 Working Parents 3. 6. 7 Teacher Attitude 3. 6. 8 Parents The Possibilities 3. 7 Research Design 4. 1 Rationale 4. 2 Study Design 4. 3 Data Collection 4. 4 Data Analysis 4. 5 Delimitation 4. 6 Participants Research Timeframe Proposed Thesis Structure Significance / Expected Outcome of Study Reference Appendices Page No. 4 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 10 10 11 13 14 17 17 17 18 18 18 20 23 23 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 29 30 30 31 32 33 34 34 35 36 38 39 41 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 6. 0 7. 0 8. 0 9. 0 _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 1. 0 B AC K G R O UND O F P RO B LE M 1 . 1 Personal Motivation The social and educational context of this research proposal is directed towards increasing parent-teacher-child interactions and changing parental participation towards educational requirements of the child.
Very few of the parents of the students in my class participated in the school-related activities which I experienced at the first year of transfer to this school. The parental participation was very limited to report signing. As a new â€˜recruitâ€™ to this organisation, I anticipated for parental participation as compared to the previous school. The parental â€˜touchâ€™ which I felt at previous school was somehow missing in the current location. As such, the need for this study will â€˜open the doorâ€™ to the community interaction. The action process will journey through the challenges and possibilities.
While no single meeting is especially memorable, I have noted several recurring problems: (1) parents do not attend scheduled meetings; (2) parents appear to be unaware of the purpose of Community & Parent Support (CAPS) working; (3) parents only ask questions; (4) parents ask others to make decisions on their behalf; (5) parents rarely refute statements made by educators; and (6) parents seldom ask for services. 1 . 2 Need for Study Rather to give perception on parental participation, the study is much needed in providing naturalistic approach to understand â€˜real world settingâ€™ where the phenomenon of interest unfolds naturally.
Though the research does not compare between two different settings preferably rural and urban community however through personal experience as a teacher in both settings primarily differences can be identified. In addition, communication is a key to any relationship and so is the case with parents and teachers. The parent and the _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 teacher relationship are dynamic.
Therefore, what one does affects the other, but in any educational community the most impacted is the child. As Class 8 is a transition point from primary school to high school, parental participation is a must to enable them better understand the reforms in education from 2011. Most parents are quite unfamiliar on its implementation of internal assessment and school zoning and requirements and through this research intervention; parents can be made more aware of their roles and responsibilities. However, internal assessment and school zoning can be taken account into another research finding.
Parents need to be facilitated and challenged to â€˜shiftâ€™ their thinking from â€˜exams resultsâ€™ to child-centred learning. Moreover, the absence of Parent Teacher Association was largely felt this year as â€˜bulkâ€™ of burden lies on our shoulders rather than having a shared responsibility. In a much more holistic term, parents are to be made aware to taking â€˜ownershipâ€™ of the school in their community. 1. 3 Description of the Community The setting where the study will take place is urban community about 4 kilometres from Lautoka City and it largely consists of Indo-Fijian and Fijian ethnic groups.
It is densely populated housing area adjacent to the Tavakubu Industrial Area. The residents range from low-income earners to moderate income earners. Public services (transport, health care) are easily accessible along with shops, religious centres, Public Park, and police post. In each household, at least a member is self employed, part time employee or full time employee. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 1. 4 Description of the Work Setting
The Vision Statement of the school is; To provide wholesome holistic education in partnership with the community. The Mission Statement of the school is; To educate the students holistically to become directed, lifelong learners who can create a positive future for themselves, . the community and the nation. School Annual Plan (2010) The primary school where this research will be conducted is classified as follows: CLASS KINDERGARTEN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 NUMBER OF STREAMS 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 The school in which research will be conducted is Gandhi Bhawan Primary
School in Lautoka with 384 students enrolled as of 2010. Due to increasing number, plans for building extension are in the pipeline. See Appendix for School Location as in Home Zone Classification & School Ethnic Classification. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 6 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 1. 5 Researcherâ€™s Role I, as the teacher researcher graduated from Lautoka Teachers College in November, 2001. This is my ninth year as a teacher. Currently, teaching Class 8 and got posted to the school in Week 8, Term I 2010.
First year, I taught in a remotely located rural school (Bulabula Indian School), seven years in another rural school (Teidamu Primary School) and a year in urban school (Arya Samaj Primary School). During this year, I have held responsibilities, as Athletics Coordinator, Quiz Coordinator, Scouts Leader and Coordinating School Based Programmes as delegated by the Head Teacher. Because of these activities, I was able to interact with few parents and the in many cases poor responds has ignited the quest to pursue with this study. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 7 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 2. 0 P UR POSE AN D AI M O F S T U D Y 2 . 1 Purpose The intended purpose of this study is examine how parental participation changes to school-related activities (such as reviving of Parent Teacher Association, attending to family support programs, volunteering and involving in general obligations at home including school supplies, general support and supervision at home) through home visits, class meetings and family support programs.
The strategies defining ways to change parental participation in this study to some extent runs parallel to the developed framework of defining six different types of parental involvement by Epstein (1995, p. 703). It also intends to help parents understand that the school desires their participation. Finally, by having parents involved in school-related activities, it is hoped that there will be lot of challenges. 2 . 2 Aim The present study aims; ? ? To see how parental participation to school activities change through processes of increased parent-teacher interactions.
To identify the challenges and possibilities towards achieving increased parental participation. To achieve this twofold aim, the study will consider the extent to which parental involvement is maximized in relation to school related activities. The study will involve qualitative case study of naturally occurring events during parentteacher and parent-teacher-child interactions at a primary school environment in Fiji. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 8 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER
THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 2 . 3 Research Question The compelling issue guiding this case study mirrors in some respects to Greenwood & Hickmanâ€™s (1991, p. 279) idea of six types of parental involvement: (1) Parent as a volunteer What do parents contribute towards the success of school events? (2) Parent as an audience How well do parents meet the basic obligations at home? (3) Parent as decision maker How does PTA participate in decision making about schools program and activities? (4) Parent as a learner How do the parents value the family support programs? ____________________________________________________________________________________ 9 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 3. 0 T HE RE OTI C AL F R AME WO R K 3. 1 Defining Parental Involvement “Parent involvement” and “parent participation” are nebulous terms because there is an array of parent behaviors that these could include. As Carol Ascher (1986, p. 109) has stated, “Of all education issues, parent involvement is one of the vaguest and most shifting in its meanings. Parent involvement may easily mean quite different things to different people”.
To define parent involvement more operationally, Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, and Brissie (1987) theorized a two-way breakdown into home-based activities (e. g. , parent home tutoring) and school based parent involvement activities (e. g. , parent volunteering, attendance at parent-teacher conferences). Adding to this distinction, Ascher (1988) finds that “the meaning of parent involvement in this new era [the 1980’s] has shifted from the affairs of the school to the home site. ” (p. 120). In his journal, Smith (n. d, p. 44) discusses parental involvement relating to Lareau (1987) as an integration of home and school.
He continues to define it as a practice that encourages parents to participate in the life of the school, as well as attend to the learning of their children at home with respect to the work of Epstein, Sanders, Simon, Salinas, Jansorn, & Van Voorhis, 2002. He elaborated that many educators believe that creating a community of families, students, teachers, and school administrators provides additional support for childrenâ€™s learning. Furthermore, evidence suggests that academic success may be predicted by the quality of these connections (Booth & Dunn, 1996. The work of Comer and Haynes (1991), Epstein (1995), and other researchersâ€™ points out that family, school, and community are three major interrelated spheres of influence on a childâ€™s life. They are parts of a larger whole that can either work toward academic success or, conversely, can impede progress. Because they are part of a larger whole, these spheres are themselves influenced by societal factors, such as cultural values and economic conditions. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 10 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER
THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 The following figure shows how the three components interrelate. It is based on the concepts of Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979) and their subsequent adaptation by James Garbarino (1992). As discussed by Onikarna, Harnmond & Koki. the inner most core is the individual child. The child has face-to-face interactions with those most influential in his or her life, including parents, other family members, teachers and church members. There are also important interactions between home and school, school and community, and community and home.
These are strongly influential in the life of a child, depending on the frequency and quality of the interconnections. Negative or conflicting relationships may place a child at risk in all three settings. 3. 2 Why Parental Involvement In an article titled, â€œListening to Parentsâ€™ Voices: Participatory Action Research in the schoolâ€ by Christine Ditrano, the author stated, â€œFamily-school collaboration is an approach that virtually everyone supports but few know to implement successfully. â€ School and parents will need to assess the best avenues to take in maintaining a positive, consistent interaction between the two entities.
Gandhi Bhawan Primary School took some steps to improve parent interaction in Term 2 when Community & Parent Support Workshop (CAPS) was held. Teachers were located their classrooms to discuss with parents on the pertaining issues. As suggested by Ditrano (n. d, p. 7) an open parent-teacher conference night can be held where parents can move freely from one teacher-to-teacher. As responded by parents in this situation that this was first time they had seen their childâ€™s teacher in four years (Ditrano n. d, p. 8), a totally opposite _____________________________________________________________________________________ 1 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 had been responded by teachers at Gandhi Bhawan Primary School, some parents hardly turn up to school activities. Besides, the ideas presented in the article supports it is vital for schools and parents to develop a community of learners to best serve their students. Ideas for teachers to support parental involvement include keeping parents informed and call home immediately when academic problems appears; send home a newsletter telling parents of class activities and deadlines; and give parents valuable study ips (McDonald, 2007. ) Though McDonalds above perspective is quite influential in parental participation, however, the study will look into home visits as to get face-to-face contact with the parent so that first hand information is sought. In their article, Avvisati, Besbas & Guyon (2010, p. 3) states, â€œwe review about levels, determinants and effects of parental involvement in school, and what we could learn from the current wave of reforms. â€ They tend to elaborate further on parental involvement being instrumental to student achievement.
It is quite remarkable how they discussed on the influences that make parents get involved. These influences include parentsâ€™ understanding of their roles in the childâ€™s life, parentsâ€™ sense of efficacy for helping their child succeed in school and general invitations, demands and opportunities for parental involvement by both the child and the childâ€™s school. These arguments were also milestone to developing the current research questions. â€œParental involvement practices also vary with the child characteristicsâ€ Avvisati et al. (2010, p. 3) explains on study by Muller (1998) in his data from the US National Educational Longitudinal Study showed that parents are involved slightly differently in their sonsâ€™ and daughterâ€™s school life, in ways which are consistent with the general literature on gendered education. That is, parents are more nurturing and restrictive towards their daughters but may discipline their sons more. During home visits, class meeting, this trend be argued further as agreeable or disagreeable from personal observation, reflection and interactions.
However, to Ostby (2010) at the launch of the Millennium Development Goals Second Report 1990-2009 for Fiji Islands revealed that Fiji has succeeded in achieving gender equality in primary and secondary school _____________________________________________________________________________________ 12 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 enrolments but is lagging behind in empowering women in decision making and professional jobs. Besides these impact of gender of parental participation can be taken as separate piece of study with detailed findings.
One of studies that have assessed the relationship between parental involvement and school performance longitudinally was by (Izzo, Weissberg, Kasprow and Fendrich 1999, p. 387). This research is greatest contribution to current study as it provided additional evidence that parental involvement is worth pursuing and may actually yield measurable improvements in childrenâ€™s school functioning. They later recommended on experimental and quasi-experimental studies in order to move from basic research about school-family collaboration to assessing their impact directly on childrenâ€™s school performance. . 3 Frequency of Parent-Teacher Interactions A significant study that examined the ways in which parental involvement in childrenâ€™s education changes over time and how it relates to childrenâ€™s social and academic functioning in school was carried out by Charles V. Izzo, Roger P. Weissberg, Wesley J. Kasprow and Michael Fendrich in Chicago. For the purpose of this study teachers provided information on parental involvement and school performance for 1,205 urban, kindergarten through third grade children for 3 consecutive years.
As predicted and results suggested the frequency of parent-teacher contacts, quality of parent-teacher interactions, and parent participation at school declined from Years 1 to 3. While discussing their research, Izzo et al (1999, p. 833) explained that the study explored three important issues regarding school-family partnerships: current practices of parental involvement in childrenâ€™s education, changes in parental involvement over time, and the relationship between parental involvement and childrenâ€™s later school performance. They also found partial support for their hypothesis that parental involvement declines over time.
There were small, but significant declines in the number of parent-teacher contacts and parentsâ€™ participation in school activities. Declines were also found for quality of parent-teacher interactions. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 13 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 As related to current study parental participation needs to be increased in relation to school activities. The frequency of parent-teacher interaction at the school concerned will also be outcome to reflect upon.
Though the research will look into a particular class involving 26 parents, the frequency at which this interaction changes will be a matter of concern. 3. 4 Type of Parental Involvement Some researchersâ€™ views on types of Parental Involvement include; ? Although most parents do not know how to help their children with their education, with guidance and support, they may become increasingly involved in home learning activities and find themselves with opportunities to teach, to be models for and to guide their children. (Roberts, 1992) ?
When schools encourage children to practice reading at home with parents, the children make significant gains in reading achievement compared to those who only practice at school. (Tizard, Schofield & Hewison, 1982) ? Parents, who read to their children, have books available, take trips, guide TV watching, and provide stimulating experiences contribute to student achievement. (Sattes, n. d) According to Henderson (1983), families whose children are doing well in school exhibits the following characteristics. ? Establish a daily family routine.
Provide time and a quiet place to study, assigning responsibility for household chores, being firm about bedtime and having dinner together. ? Monitor out-of-school activities. Setting limits on TV watching, checking up on children when parents are not home, arranging for after-school activities and supervised care. ? Model the value of learning, self-discipline, and hard work. Communicating through questioning and conversation, demonstrating that achievement comes from working hard. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 14
EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 ? Express high but realistic expectations for achievement. Setting goals and standards that are appropriate for childrenâ€™s age and maturity, recognizing and encouraging special talents, informing friends and families about successes. ? Encourage childrenâ€™s development/progress in school. Maintaining a warm and supportive home, showing interest in childrenâ€™s progress at school, helping with homework, discussing the value of good education and possible career options, staying in touch with teachers and school staff. Encourage reading, writing, and discussion among family members. Reading, listening to children read and talking about what is being read. Existing programmes to better teacher-parent-child interaction can be classified along a variety of dimensions and differ in many ways from each other. An influential classification distinguishes programmes according to the type of involvement that schools try to foster. Avvisati, Besbas and Guyon (2010, p. 14) refers to Joyce. L. Epsteinâ€™s (1991) as a frequently cited scholar in this area distinguished six types of involvement from parents.
Epstein’s Six Types of Parent Involvement Joyce Epstein of Johns Hopkins University has developed a framework for defining six different types of parent involvement. This framework assists educators in developing school and family partnership programs. “There are many reasons for developing school, family, and community partnerships,” she writes. “The main reason to create such partnerships is to help all youngsters succeed in school and in later life. ” Epstein’s framework defines the six types of involvement and lists sample practices or activities to describe the involvement more fully.
Her work also describes the challenges inherent in fostering each type of parent involvement as well as the expected results of implementing them for students, parents, and teachers. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 15 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 Epstein’s Framework of Six Types of Involvement Type I Parenting Help all families establish home environments to support children as students. E. g. Family support programs to assist families with health, nutrition, and other services.
Type II Design effective forms of school-to-home and home-to-school Communicating communications about school programs and children’s progress. Such as conferences with every parent at least once year. Language translators to assist families as needed. Type III Volunteering Recruit and organize parent help and support. Such as school and classroom volunteer program to help teachers, administrators, students, and other parents. Parent room or family center for volunteer work, meetings, and resources for families.
Provide information and ideas to families about how to help students at home with homework and other curriculum-related activities, decisions, and planning. Such include Information on homework policies and how to monitor and discuss schoolwork at home. Involvement in school decision-making, governance and advocacy. Includes active PTA/PTO or other parent organizations, advisory councils, or committees for parent leadership and participation. Identify and integrate resources and services from the community to strengthen school programs, family practices, and student learning and development.
Such as Information for students and families on community health, cultural, recreational, social support, and other programs/services. Type IV Learning at Home Type V Decision Making Type VI Collaborating with community Izzo et al. (1999, p. 817) also rated the following four dimensions of parental involvement: frequency of parent-teacher contact, quality of the parent-teacher interaction, participation in educational activities at home, and participation in school activities.
In addition, these distinguished participation mirrors in some respects to teacherâ€™s role, particularly in the primary school, interacting with 6 types of parental involvement: (1) parent as audience, (2) parent as volunteer, (3) parent as paraprofessional, (4) parent as teacher of own child, (5) parent as learner and (6) parent as decision maker. Greenwood, G and Hickman, K (1991, p. 279). By developing awareness of the levels _____________________________________________________________________________________ 16 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER
THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 of family involvement, schools can let family members know that there are many different ways in which they can participate in the education of their children. 3. 4. 1 Parent in â€˜Involvementâ€™ Process The subtitles later follow integrated educationists view on different types of parental involvement as discussed earlier in detail. 3. 4. 1. 1 Parent as audience As Chavkin (1993, p. 76) defines, â€œparent as audience supports child by going to school performances, open houses and so on. â€ The parent as supporter of childâ€™s activities gets involved. Active parents may be more likely to have active children because they encourage that behavior through the use of support systems and opportunities for physical activity, but there is no statistical evidence that a child is active simply because they see that their parents exercise,” said Trost. (2010). Activities that may see parent as audience annual functions, school athletics and sports and other school based competitive or participatory events. 3. 4. 1. 2 Parent as volunteer School-program supporter can be involved by parents coming to school to ssist in events. Volunteering in school enables to contribute towards progress and development of the school and its pupils and this brings happiness and satisfaction. Brinton, B. (1991) in an article â€˜Parentsâ€™ Sourceâ€™ shared reflected on her experience as parent volunteer. Her duties varied according to the needs and styles of the teacher. Assistance were in forms of supervising art projects, signing out homework books, running off copies, and working one on one with students who might need a little extra help with a certain subject.
As for qualifications for parent volunteers, the NEA recommended that parents enjoy working with children, have an interest in education and the community, feel committed to the goals of parent involvement, have the desire to help, and are dependable and in good health. Based on her observations, she also recommend that a parent volunteer be flexible, and expect the unexpected. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 17 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010
Parents can volunteer in our local schools through organizing and arrangements for religious festivals, fund raising drives, school development projects, school outings and assist in meeting educational meets of extremely needy students in class. 3. 4. 1. 3 Parent as paraprofessional Paraprofessionals have many different roles, duties and responsibilities, and expectations that often vary among individuals who work as the same school. Paraprofessionals provide aides and support to teachers in classrooms and colleges.
Even without being lead teachers, paraprofessionals work responsibly assisting head of departments and senior teachers. In the recent years, owing to stress and pressure on teachers in schools and colleges, paraprofessionals have been recruited to provide assistance in variety of educational set ups. As discussed by Hankerson (1983, p. 75), this development incorporated many concepts: (1) new careers, (2) growth of educational technology, (3) cultural assimilation and diversity, (4) team teaching, (5) personal improvement of teacher aides, (6) parents as partners, and (7) home and school focus on achievement.
The research findings on teacher aides and parent involvement in early childhood and elementary school programs showed that with this additional support, children make significant cognitive gains. In his â€˜The Urban Reviewâ€™ he summed up relating to the work action theorists (Mead, 1934; Brookover, 1959; Smith, 1978; Smith and Brache, 1963) have postulated that, â€œthe childâ€™s motivation and achievement performances are influenced by his/her primary interactions with parents and â€˜significant othersâ€™. Smith defines â€œsignificant otherâ€ as persons (such as teachers, teacher aides, community members) other than natural parents who are important to the individual. Thus, with parents serving as teachers aides, both motivating factors are met. 3. 4. 1. 4 Parent as a Teacher of Own Child Homework can be an effective way for students to improve their learning and for parents to communicate their appreciation of schooling. In the article, No Child Left _____________________________________________________________________________________ 18 EDU 410: THE TEACHER AS RESEARCHER
THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2010 Behind Report 2003 states that, â€œresearch shows that if a child is having difficulty with homework, parents should become involved by paying close attention. â€ Furthermore, it argues that parentsâ€™ interference in learning can confuse child such as completing tasks that the child is capable of completing along. Peterson (1989) states, â€œchildren spend much more time at home than at school. Their parents know them intimately, interact with them one-to-one, and do not expect to be paid to help their children succeed. The home environment, more familiar and less structured than the classroom, offers what Dorothy Rich (1985) calls “‘teachable moments’ that teachers can only dream about. â€ 3. 4. 1. 5 Parent as Decision Maker This fifth type of parental involvement as explained by Epstein (n. d) stated that parentsâ€™ voices must be heard when it comes to decision making at the school. This enables families to participate in decisions about the schoolâ€™s programs and activities that will impact their own and other childrenâ€™s educational experiences.
All parents must be given opportunities to offer ideas and suggestions on ways to improve their schools. Having families as true stakeholders in the school creates feelings of ownership of the schoolâ€™s programs and activities. Sample Activities Examples of activities schools could conduct to promote decision making includ
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