Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Pasay City

COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE 2. 0 2. 1 THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Geography, Location and Area The city of Pasay is located in the western coast of Metro Manila or the National Capital Region (NCR). It is bounded in the north by the city of Manila, in the northeast by the city of Makati and the municipality of Taguig, in the west by the city of Paranaque, and in the west by the Manila Bay (See Figure 2. 1). The city is located approximately at latitude 14? 32′ and longitude 121? 00′. In terms of area, Pasay is the third smallest political subdivision among the cities and municipalities of NCR.
The area distribution of the city per Barangay is shown in Table 2. 1. Table 2. 1 Area Distribution (in Hectares) Brgy. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 48 Area 1. 48 4. 37 1. 84 2. 89 1. 53 1. 47 2. 58 1. 94 1. 43 2. 99 1. 82 1. 89 13. 95 2. 48 3. 61 1. 30 1. 69 4. 61 1. 10 2. 25 1. 78 0. 56 4. 14 2. 44 2. 16 1. 86 1. 90 3. 82 1. 88 1. 18 2. 80 2. 97 5. 88 2. 93 3. 56 4. 43 4. 56 8. 40 5. 53 5. 53 4. 20 2. 66 1. 69 5. 94 2. 73 3. 90 1. 80 Percent to Total (%) 0. 08 0. 24 0. 10 0. 16 0. 08 0. 08 0. 14 0. 11 0. 08 0. 17 0. 10 0. 10 0. 7 0. 14 0. 20 0. 07 0. 09 0. 26 0. 06 0. 12 0. 10 0. 03 0. 23 0. 14 0. 12 0. 10 0. 11 0. 21 0. 10 0. 07 0. 16 0. 16 0. 33 0. 16 0. 20 0. 25 0. 25 0. 47 0. 31 0. 31 0. 23 0. 15 0. 09 0. 33 0. 15 0. 22 0. 10 Brgy. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 98 Area 2. 26 2. 37 1. 01 1. 94 2. 25 1. 01 0. 91 4. 31 3. 79 3. 55 0. 40 0. 49 2. 18 1. 15 4. 45 2. 81 1. 83 1. 56 1. 24 6. 12 1. 02 1. 47 6. 06 3. 30 9. 34 50. 45 4. 22 3. 33 4. 20 2. 64 1. 62 0. 71 2. 11 1. 31 3. 88 1. 56 1. 22 3. 19 1. 24 2. 00 1. 73 2. 28 2. 79 2. 91 2. 51 2. 26 4. 9 Percent to Total (%) 0. 13 0. 13 0. 06 0. 11 0. 12 0. 06 0. 05 0. 24 0. 21 0. 20 0. 02 0. 03 0. 12 0. 06 0. 25 0. 16 0. 10 0. 09 0. 07 0. 34 0. 06 0. 08 0. 34 0. 18 0. 52 2. 79 0. 23 0. 18 0. 23 0. 15 0. 09 0. 04 0. 12 0. 07 0. 22 0. 09 0. 07 0. 18 0. 07 0. 11 0. 10 0. 13 0. 15 0. 16 0. 14 0. 13 0. 24 Brgy. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 148 Area 1. 09 1. 11 1. 42 2. 51 0. 91 1. 13 2. 24 2. 82 0. 90 1. 78 1. 50 1. 41 2. 84 2. 38 2. 12 2. 35 1. 38 2. 26 2. 64 2. 88 2. 02 0. 99 0. 91 2. 4 2. 37 1. 22 2. 90 2. 26 1. 21 2. 82 2. 28 2. 73 2. 82 1. 23 4. 04 3. 05 2. 52 1. 29 1. 33 1. 10 1. 69 1. 11 5. 88 7. 02 6. 65 3. 33 9. 83 Percent to Total (%) 0. 06 0. 06 0. 08 0. 14 0. 05 0. 06 0. 12 0. 16 0. 05 0. 10 0. 08 0. 08 0. 16 0. 13 0. 12 0. 13 0. 08 0. 12 0. 15 0. 16 0. 11 0. 05 0. 05 0. 15 0. 13 0. 07 0. 16 0. 13 0. 07 0. 16 0. 13 0. 15 0. 16 0. 07 0. 22 0. 17 0. 14 0. 07 0. 07 0. 06 0. 09 0. 06 0. 33 0. 39 0. 37 0. 18 0. 54 Brgy. 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 198 Area 2. 4 4. 10 1. 64 0. 94 1. 52 2. 23 1. 93 1. 93 2. 95 1. 69 5. 46 3. 10 2. 23 1. 37 7. 13 2. 12 1. 38 2. 16 3. 07 1. 46 3. 05 3. 65 1. 41 2. 44 1. 52 2. 25 4. 48 3. 58 7. 05 46. 20 2. 34 9. 69 543. 89 8. 63 18. 31 2. 88 16. 62 8. 79 2. 67 60. 81 45. 60 18. 81 13. 99 4. 87 3. 85 2. 83 18. 09 Percent to Total (%) 0. 16 0. 23 0. 09 0. 05 0. 08 0. 12 0. 11 0. 11 0. 16 0. 09 0. 30 0. 17 0. 12 0. 08 0. 40 0. 12 0. 08 0. 12 0. 17 0. 08 0. 17 0. 20 0. 08 0. 14 0. 08 0. 12 0. 25 0. 20 0. 39 2. 56 0. 13 0. 54 30. 13 0. 48 1. 01 0. 16 0. 92 0. 49 0. 15 3. 37 2. 53 1. 04 0. 78 0. 27 0. 21 0. 16 1. 00
The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph 1 COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE 49 50 4. 02 0. 95 0. 22 0. 05 99 100 1. 88 3. 38 0. 10 0. 19 149 150 1. 19 1. 89 0. 07 0. 10 Area of Barangays 1 to 201 Reclamation Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex TOTAL AREA 199 200 201 1,399. 50 213. 66 191. 95 1,805. 11 5. 25 4. 81 33. 75 0. 29 0. 27 1. 87 77. 53 11. 84 10. 63 100. 00 The city has a total area of 1,805. 11 hectares. The city proper or Barangays 1 to 201 occupies around 1,399. 50 hectares or 77. 53 percent the total area. The Cultural Center Complex occupies around 191. 5 hectares (10. 63%) while the rest of the reclamation area covers an area of 213. 66 hectares (11. 84 %). The Barangay Map is shown in Figure 2. 2. 2. 2 Geology Pasay consists of two terrain units, an eastern undulating section and a western alluvial portion, which extends into the Manila Bay. The undulating to gently sloping terrain is underlain by a gently dipping sequence of pyroclastic rocks essentially made up of tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones and conglomerates belonging to the Guadalupe formation. This formation is represented by massive to thickly bedded lithic tuff and tuffaceous sandstone.
Based on the Geologic Map of Pasay (Figure 2. 3), the two major geologic formations are: Quarternary Alluvial (QA1) which is comprised of detrital deposits mostly silt, sand and gravel; and Guadalupe formation (GF) of which the upper member (Diliman Tuff) is thin to medium bedded, fine-grained, vitric tuffs and welded volcanic breccias with subordinate amounts of tuffaceous, fine to medium grained sandstone. Members of the Pleistocene Guadalupe Formation underlie almost half of the terrain where Pasay lies. These are mainly Alat Conglomerate and Diliman Tuff.
Early Pleistocene to late Pleistocene conglomerate, silty mudstone and tuffaceous sandstone comprise the lower member while late Pleistocene wellbedded tuff units make up the upper member. The constituents of the Diliman Tuff were most likely derived from a volcano on the central lobe of Laguna de Bay to the south based on its aerial distribution pattern and lithological similarity with those in the northern vicinity of the central lobe of Laguna de Bay. On the other hand, Quartenary alluvial deposits of the Marikina Alluvial plain and Pasig River Delta plain cover western areas of the city.
The presence of the marine sediments suggest that the quartenary alluvium was probably deposited after uplift of the Guadalupe formation. 2. 3 Physiography Metro Manila’s physiography is divided into six zones namely, the Manila Bay, the Coastal Margin, the Guadalupe Plateau, the Marikina Valley, the Laguna lowlands and the Laguna de Bay. Pasay City belongs to the Coastal Margin or the low lying flat strip of land east of Manila Bay with an elevation of less than 5 meters above mean sea level. This zone also occupies portions of Valenzuela, The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. ov. ph 2 COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE Malabon, Caloocan, Navotas, Manila, Paranaque, Las Pinas and the reclaimed portion of Manila Bay 2. 4 Topography, Elevation and Slope The western part of Pasay City is level to nearly level while its southeastern part is gently sloping to gently undulating. It is characterized by coastal plains along the Manila Bay in the west and sloping areas extending in the south-east direction. Surface elevations range from 2 meters above the mean sea level on the coastal plains and 24 meters on the southeast part of the city. . 5 Land and Associated Soil Characteristics As per Metro Manila Land Resource Evaluation Project by BSWM, Pasay has the following land and soil characteristics (Figure 2. 4): Active Tidal Flats (Coastal Landscape) Active tidal flats, with an almost flat relief, have an elevation that ranges from 0 to 1. 5 meters, sometimes reaching up to 3 meters above the mean sea level. This land system has very poor drainage characteristics. Waterlogged areas may pose a corrosion problem to underground uncoated steel pipes or structural reinforcement.
Poor drainage is also a problem in sewage disposal in areas which are not served by public sewer facilities. It is further characterized by slow permeability, high compressibility, and possible flooding during seasonal high water table. Soil texture or the different sizes of particles in the soil mass are clay, silty clay, and sandly clay loam. The parent materials of this land classification are tidal mudflats with muck and peat locally, alluvial sediments. Former Tidal Flats (Coastal Landscape) The former tidal flats consist of areas more inland and slightly higher than the active tidal flats.
They occupy the almost flat plains, backswamps and depression of the coastal landscape formed from marine and flovio-marine deposits. Slightly lower then the alluvial plain, its elevation ranges from 2 to 5 meters. It has slow to moderate permeability and a soil texture of clay to silty clay loam. Moreover, it is poorly drained, prone to moderate seasonal flooding, highly compressible, and corrosive to uncoated steel. Its parent materials are alluvial sediments, former tidal mudflats underlain with peaty and mucky materials. . Water Resources Characteristics 2. . 1 Surface Waters 2. 6 Pasay City is bounded in the west by Manila Bay. It is traversed by two minor rivers that feed the Paranaque River namely the Estero de Tripa de Gallina and Maricaban Creek. The city lies within the Manila Bay Watershed area. The bay has a catchment area of about 17,000 square kilometers that is made up of about eight river basins, nearest of which to the city is the Paranaque-Las Pinas river basin. This river basin is subsequently made up of three major rivers, the Paranaque, Las Pinas and Zapote Rivers.
These river systems essentially serve about 1,500 hectares of low-lying areas along the Manila Bay and functions as 3 The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE the principal drainage channel of the area. The geomorphic setting of these lowlying areas and the hydraulic action of the Manila Bay basin and the South China Sea make the area vulnerable to flooding, a condition aggravated by the inadequate capacity and poor maintenance of the drainage facilities. 2. 6. 2 Groundwater
Pasay is situated on a delta which has produced locally-confined aquifers. Groundwater utilization, however, has resulted in significant draw-down causing much land subsidence and saline water intrusion particularly in the coastal areas. The groundwater basin contains several connected and interrelated aquifers, composed of tuffaceous sandstone and conglomerates belonging to the Guadalupe Formation. These facets of Guadalupe Formation in the southeastern part of the city have thickness of approximately 1,300 to 1,200 meters. Recharge to the aquifers comes from rainfall and inflow from the extension of these aquifers.
However, these are already over exploited due to uncontrolled pumping and excessive underwater withdrawal, a practice done principally by high-density residential, commercial and industrial establishments. This situation leads to a partial depletion of the aquifers resulting in the lowering of water levels and high pumping costs. Almost 2000 wells have been drilled in the aquifers of the Guadalupe Formation for the commercial and residential users. Some of these wells go as deep as 300 meters. In 1990, total pumpage reached 339. 6 million cubic meters. 2. 6. 3 Water Quality
Available data from government agencies such as the DENR-EMB have indicated that the near-the-shore waters of Manila Bay, together with the major rivers in Metro Manila, are considered biologically dead. The water quality in Manila Bay has progressively deteriorated due to domestic, industrial and agricultural wastes being dumped uncontrollably in the waterways. This present state is likewise being attributed to inadequate drainage facilities and the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial wastewater due to inadequate wastewater collection, treatment and disposal facilities.
Based on the sampling conducted by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) in each month of the year 2000, water quality as per dissolved oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and the total suspended solid level in various stations of the Paranaque-Zapote River are shown in the following tables. Two stations were located within Pasay City, Tramo and MIA Road. Table 2. 3 Annual Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) in the Paranaque-Zapote River System, 2000 Station Tramo MIA Road La Huerta Paranaque Zapote Quirino Monthly Ave. Standard, mg/L Location Tramo, Pasay City MIA Rd. Pasay City Paranaque City Paranaque City Las Pinas City Paranaque City Jan NS NS NS NS NS NS NA 5 Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0. 21 NS 0. 0 0 0. 1 0. 9 1. 3 1. 2 0 NS 0 0. 06 NS 3. 8 0 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0 NS 0. 0 0. 51 NS 12. 0 0 4. 0 13. 4 0. 0 2. 8 0 NS 0 4. 89 NS 3. 6 0 1. 0 9. 5 4. 0 5. 4 0 NS 4. 2 0. 1 NS 0. 0 0 0. 8 9. 4 1. 2 1. 6 0 NS 0 NS NS 12. 0 0 2. 0 11. 4 0. 0 0. 6 0 NS 0. 0 1. 15 NA 5. 2 0 1. 3 7. 4 1. 1 2. 1 0 NA 0. 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Annual 0. 4 0. 5 3. 6 3. 6 1. 5 3. 3 2. 1 5 The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph 4 COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE
Table 2. 4 Annual BOD (mg/L) in the Paranaque-Zapote River System, 2000 Paranaque Tramo MIA Road La Huerta Paranaque Zapote Quirino Monthly Ave. Standard, mg/L Location Tramo, Pasay City MIA Rd. , Pasay City Paranaque City Paranaque City Las Pinas City Paranaque City Jan NS NS NS NS NS NS NA 10 Feb 10 17 16 7 30 NS 16 10 Mar NS NS NS NS NS NS NA 10 Apr May Jun July Aug Sep 15 32 17 26 23 6 15 38 12 17 32 10 11 39 16 13 32 4 22 29 17 26 33 13 32 39 5 12 16 8 3 23 14 12 33 2 16 33 14 18 28 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 Oct 23 23 27 14 21 23 22 10 Nov Dec Annual NS 17 19 NS 13 20 NS 20 20 NS 10 19 NS 33 22 NS 15 16 NA 18 19 10 10 10
Table 2. 5 Annual Total Suspended Solid Levels in the Paranaque-Zapote River System, 2000 Paranaque Tramo MIA Road La Huerta Paranaque Zapote Quirino Monthly Ave. Location Jan Feb Tramo, Pasay City NS 20 MIA Rd. , Pasay City NS 20 Paranaque City NS 30 Paranaque City NS 20 Las Pinas City NS 30 Paranaque City NS NS NA 21 Mar NS NS NS NS NS NS NA Apr May Jun July Aug Sep 20 10 10 20 30 40 80 30 20 30 30 40 100 30 10 30 20 30 70 30 20 20 30 30 60 20 10 70 30 30 50 10 20 50 40 40 63 22 15 37 30 35 Oct 40 40 40 30 30 30 35 Nov Dec Annual NS 30 24 NS 20 34 NS 40 37 NS 20 30 NS 40 36 NS 20 33 NA 28 32
The sampling results show that dissolved oxygen levels in the two Pasay stations are way below the standards while the BOD concentrations are way above standard. 2. 7 Atmospheric Characteristic From the nearest PAGASA station at Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), climatological data from 1950-1995 were obtained. Tables 2. 6 and 2. 7 show some of the significant data. 2. 7. 1 Climate The climate of Pasay is classified as Type 1 under the Corona classification used by Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) depending on rainfall pattern.
It is characterized by two pronounced seasons: rainy season from May to October and dry season from January to April, when rainfall drops to 10-30-mm/ month. In general, Metro Manila is directly influenced by an average of 2 to 3 tropical cyclones per year. 2. 7. 2 Rainfall The PAGASA station recorded an annual rainfall amount of 1,149. 2 mm with a total of 113 rainy days between the years 1961-1995. The rainy months of May – October indicated monthly rainy days of 7- 20 with the month of July recording the highest at 20. The highest amount of rainfall for the period 1949-1995 was 427. mm recorded on February 1,1962. 2. 7. 3 Temperature Pasay has an average normal annual temperature of 27. 5 °C. The warmest months are April, May and June while the coldest months are December, January and February with the minimum temperature of 25-26°C. The highest 5 The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE temperature was recorded on May 18,1969 at 38. 1°C while the lowest was recorded at 14. 6°C on February 1, 1962. 2. 7. 4 Relative Humidity Relative humidity or the percentages of water vapor in the air ranges, in onthly values, from 66% to 81% with an annual average of 75%. These values indicate that Pasay is relatively humid. 2. 7. 5 Wind Speed and Direction The annual prevailing wind direction in the area is towards the east. The average annual wind speed is 3. 0 meters per second (mps). High wind speed occurs in March to April while low wind speed happens in September to November. The highest wind speed of 56 mps was recorded on November 14, 1977, going in a western direction. The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph 6 COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE Table 2. Climatological Normals Month January February March April May June July August September October November December ANNUAL Source: Note: Rainfall Amount 8. 5 2. 9 6. 2 13. 2 101. 6 244. 5 363. 0 414. 1 309. 0 221. 4 121. 1 43. 7 1849. 2 No. of Rainy Days 2 1 2 2 7 15 18 20 17 13 10 6 113 Temperature (°C) Max 30. 3 31. 2 32. 7 34. 3 34. 2 32. 5 31. 3 30. 8 31. 0 31. 1 31. 0 30. 3 31. 7 Min 20. 9 21. 2 22. 4 24. 0 24. 9 24. 5 24. 1 24. 0 24. 0 23. 5 22. 8 21. 7 23. 2 Mean Dry Bulb Wet Bulb Dew Point VP (mbs) 25. 6 25. 3 21. 9 20. 5 23. 9 26. 2 26. 0 22. 0 20. 3 23. 7 27. 6 27. 4 22. 8 21. 0 24. 6 29. 29. 0 24. 0 22. 1 26. 4 29. 6 29. 3 24. 9 23. 4 28. 4 28. 5 28. 2 25. 0 23. 9 29. 5 27. 7 27. 4 24. 7 23. 7 29. 2 27. 4 27. 0 24. 7 23. 9 29. 5 27. 5 27. 1 24. 8 24. 0 29. 7 27. 3 27. 0 24. 3 23. 3 28. 5 26. 9 26. 6 23. 6 22. 5 27. 1 26. 0 25. 7 22. 7 21. 5 25. 5 27. 5 27. 2 23. 8 22. 5 27. 2 Relative MSL PRESS. Humidity (mbs) 74 70 67 66 70 77 80 83 83 80 78 77 75 1013. 5 1013. 5 1012. 7 1011. 2 1009. 4 1008. 8 1008. 3 1008. 1 1008. 9 1009. 7 1011. 0 1012. 6 1010. 6 Wind Speed and Direction Direction Speed E 3 E 4 E 4 E 4 E 4 W 3 W 3 W 3 W 2 E 2 E 2 E 3 E 3 Cloud Cover (Octa) 4 4 3 3 5 6 6 7 7 6 5 5 5
Days TSTM 0 0 0 1 7 11 12 9 11 9 2 0 59 With LTNG 0 0 1 4 16 16 16 10 15 10 3 1 92 PAGASA Station at 429-NAIA (MIA), Pasay City, located at 14°31’N latitude and 121°01’ longitude with elevation 21. 0 m from period 1961-1995. Table 2. 7 Climatological Extremes Month January February March April May June July August September October November December ANNUAL Period of Record Source: Notes: High 35. 8 34. 8 36. 5 37. 8 38. 1 38 36 35. 2 34. 9 36 35. 8 34. 2 38. 1 Daily Highest Rainfall (mm) Temperature (°C) Date Low Date Amount Date 7-89 14. 8 18-61 55. 3 3-70 28-80 14. 6 1-62 16. 5 27-50 30-78 16 3-63 35. 12-71 23-48 19. 4 17-68 63 4-92 18-69 19. 1 11-50 229. 1 27-60 2-91 20 22-54 316. 8 27-85 6-91 18. 3 28-48 472. 4 20-72 29-89 17. 4 9-49 401. 8 10-47 9-79 19. 1 15-50 228. 8 8-63 24-76 18 23-81 274. 5 9-78 17-72 17. 2 26-49 121. 7 14-77 28-79 16. 3 18-55 110. 5 30-50 5-18 14. 6 2-1 1962 472. 4 7-20 1972 1969 1947-1995 1949-1995 Speed 20 20 26 20 31 36 36 30 26 27 56 25 56 Wind (mps) Direction E-NE E E E SW S W WSW NW W W NW W 1950-1995 Date 12-86 28-88 29-92 6-86 22-76 29-64 8-86 16-84 27-78 18-85 19-70 30-50 11-19 1970 High 1,022. 30 1021. 4 1021. 1 1019. 9 1015. 9 1015. 9 1014. 9 1015. 2 1015. 2 1017 1019. 1020. 9 1022. 3 Sea Level Pressure Date Low 27-87 1004. 4 1-62 1005. 0 2-87 1004. 7 23-87 1003. 8 9-57 992. 2 6-66 974. 2 7-53 994. 2 12-58 992. 8 20-65 988. 9 25-86 977. 9 3-89 899. 4 8-60 996. 2 1-27 899. 4 1978 1950-1995 Date 1-50 15-52 8-84 25-71 17-89 29-64 15-83 24-78 30-95 14-70 3-95 15-64 11-3 1995 PAGASA *Station at 429-NAIA (MIA), Pasay City, located at 14°31’N latitude and 121°01’ longitude with elevation 21. 0 m from period 1961-1995. *No record for the period 1941-1945 The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph 7 COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE 2. 8
Air Quality Pasay City is already experiencing a deterioration of its air quality. This may be attributed to the congestion of people, improperly maintained vehicles servicing them, and the significant percentage of pollutive firms with inadequate air pollution control devices and facilities operating within the area. The National Ambient Air Quality and Noise Standards are prescribed in Table 2. 8 and Table 2. 9 respectively. Table 2. 8 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Source Specific Pollutants *POLLUTANTS (a) 1. Ammonia 2. Carbon Disulfide 3. Chlorine and Chlorine compounds expressed as Cl2 4.
Formal dehyde CONCENTRATION (c) ug/Ncm 200 30 100 ppm 0. 28 0. 01 0. 03 AVERAGING TIME (min) 30 30 5 METHOD OF ANALYSIS/ MEASUREMENT (b) Nesselcrization/Indo Phenol Tischer Method Methyl Orange 50 0. 04 30 5. Hydrogen Chloride 6. Hydrogen Sulfide 7. Lead 8. Nitrogen Oxide 9. Phenol 10. Sulfur Dioxide 11. Suspended particulate Matter – TSP PM – 10 200 100 20 375 260 100 470 340 300 200 0. 13 0. 07 0. 2 0. 14 0. 03 0. 18 0. 13 30 30 30 30 60 30 30 60 60 60 Chromotrophic acid method or MBTH-Colorimetric method Volhard Titration with Iodine solution Methylene Blue b AAS Griess-Saltzmans 4-Amineantipyrine Colorimetric- Pararosaniline
Gravimetric -do- Table 2. 9 DENR Standards for Noise in General Areas, dB(A) AREA Schools/hospitals Residential Commercial Light Industrial Heavy Industrial DAYTIME 50 60 65 70 75 MORNING/EVENING 45 50 60 65 70 NIGHTTIME 40 45 55 60 60 2. 9 Geologic and other Natural Hazards No traced earthquake fault line traverses the city of Pasay. However, the city is not spared from other related geologic hazards such as tsunamis, ground shaking, and liquefaction. Tsunamis are giant sea waves generated by under the sea earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Not all submarine earthquakes, however, can cause the occurrence of tsunamis.
Tsunamis can only occur when the earthquake is shallow-seated and strong enough (M 7. 0) to displace parts of the seabed and disturb the water over it (PHIVOLCS). The coastal area of Pasay City is among the most hit by tsunamis and have a high potential for future tsunamis. Typhoons and their associated hazards, such as strong winds, storm surges, and floods, are among the most recurrent and damaging calamities our country is The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph 8 COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE prone to.
Some 20 typhoons pass the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) every year. These are most frequent during the months of May to December with peak occurrences in the month of November. Of the total 325 typhoons recorded to have crossed the PAR from 1948 to 1978, about 20 passed through Metro Manila. One of these, Typhoon Yoling, was the most severe, registering a maximum wind speed of 200 kph and bringing 24-hour rainfall on the Metropolis. Residential areas, infrastructure, power systems, and other utility installations experienced heavy damages, some of which took months to restore. . 10 Environmental Management 2. 10. 1 Water Management To address the countrywide water crisis which adversely affects the health and well being of the population, food production and industrialization process, the National Water Crisis Act of 1995 was enacted. Some of the issues related to the water crises are: water supply, water distribution, financing aspects, privatization of state-run water facilities, the protection and conservation of watersheds, and pilferage of water, including the serious matter of graft and corruption in all the water agencies. . 10. 2 Air Quality Management The Clean Air Act of 1999 recognizes that the responsibility of cleaning the habitat and environment is primarily area-based, thus, a local government concern. In terms of air quality management, it stipulates that: LGUs shall share the responsibility in the management and maintenance of air quality within their territorial jurisdiction. LGUs shall implement air quality standards set by the Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB) in areas within their jurisdiction.
Provided, however, that in cases where the board has not been duly constituted and has not promulgated its standards, the standards set forth in this Act shall apply. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources shall provide the LGUs with technical assistance, training and a continuing capabilitybuilding program to prepare them to undertake full administration of the air quality management and regulation within their territorial jurisdiction. The LGU, for one, is responsible for attaining and maintaining the ambient air quality standards within their respective airsheds.
The designation of airsheds shall be on the basis of, but not limited to, areas with similar climate, meteorology and topology which affect the interchange and diffusion of pollutants in the atmosphere, or areas which share common interest or face similar development programs, prospects or problems. The DENR bases such ambient air quality standards on World Health Organization (WHO) standards, but shall not be limited to nor be less stringent than such standards. The initial lists and values of the hazardous air pollutants are provided in the DENR mandate.
The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph 9 COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE 2. 10. 3 Land Management All the barangays of the city have Cadastral Maps which are being used for taxation and other legal purposes. On the other hand, prior to this undertaking, a Zoning Ordinance in 1981 was being used to guide developments and land uses in the city. 2. 10. 4 Solid Waste Management (SWM) At present, the city of Pasay disposes of its solid waste in the San Mateo Sanitary Landfill and the Payatas dumpsite.
As per a JICA study on Solid Waste Management for Metro Manila involving government agencies such as DECS, DENR and MMDA, Pasay City along with Taguig, Pateros and the city of Makati shall be accommodated in the proposed Transfer Station within Fort Bonifacio and then dumped in an inland landfill site to be later specified. (Figure 2. 5 refers) All barangays are covered by solid waste collection, which is handled by the local government and private contractors. Solid wastes are collected daily on main thoroughfares and every other day in the rest of the city. However, the collection systems accommodate urgent requests by residents.
Table 2. 10 Existing Solid Waste Disposal Methods Method Population Served Residents of each Barangay Whole city Responsible Agency/Entity Barangay Officials Equipment Facilities Push Cart Financing/ Operating Costs Remarks 1. Push cart collection Not recommended since collectors tend to throw their garbage anywhere • Presentations • Diesoline Expenses • Salaries of the personnel 2. Collection by trucks, Transfer and Transport 3. Experimental Waste Segregation 51 Families Private sector/ Solid Waste Contractors: • Excellent Trucking Services, • Greenline Onyx, • Leg Hauling, and • RM Maintenance Services SWM Compactors Office of the Mayor Trucks (10 wheeler dump truck) • Open-Top Compactors • Pay loaders • Shovels • Sacks Garbage Compactors Diesoline Expenses Maintenance of the facilities A project adopted by the Maryville Association Source: Solid Waste Management Office 2. 10. 5 Drainage and Flood Control System The Tripa de Gallina and Libertad pumping stations (PS), the Buendia and Libertad Outfalls or Channels are currently servicing the drainage requirement of the city. The Tripa de Gallina PS has a drainage area of over 1,700 hectares. Part of the storm runoff from the Estero de Tripa de Gallina enters the Libertad PS via the Buendia and Libertad Outfalls.
The rest are discharged into the Paranaque River. The Estero, however, shows a fluctuation in profile due to the deposit of sediment and garbage, and insufficient improvement of the Buendia Channel. This condition is caused largely by poor sewerage and improper solid waste disposal. A considerable volume of wastes accumulates in the retention pond of the reclamation area. In areas along esteros and creeks occupied by a number of squatter shanties, wastes are directly discharged into the waterway. At present, the local government employs flood control measures such as annual 10
The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE clearing of all waterways and sedimentation (desilting of riverbeds) accompanied by a proper garbage and waste disposal system. The adjoining upstream areas of the Libertad Reclamation Area is being drained through the Libertad, Buendia, and EDSA outfalls. Their existing discharge capacities are much smaller than their design capacities due to siltation. Garbage inflow at the inlets of these outfalls aggravates the problem. 2. 10. Disaster Management The warning system for both typhoons and floods in Metro Manila are operated by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). It monitors the meteorological and hydrological conditions and issues periodic reports. This report contains a warning if the conditions entail risks to the population. The warning system for typhoons works separately from the warning system for floods. 2. 11 Land Suitability Assessment In coming up with an effective land utilization system, the physical and environmental attributes of Pasay City must be considered.
Areas of physical constraint for further developments in the city should be delineated. Maps indicating the city’s relevant physical and environmental attributes are generated and translated into degrees of concern. References used for this purpose include materials from the local government, BSWM, and PHIVOLCS. Some of the environmental concerns such as flooding, drainage, river preservation, liquefaction hazard, and industrial zones were reflected in maps and discussed briefly. These are subsequently used to delineate the areas of various degrees of development suitability.
Flood Hazard Areas Besides natural factors, other aspects that tend to aggravate flooding problems in Metro Manila include the following: Infrastructure development leading to the creation of more impervious areas, resulting to higher peak run-offs that usually cause standing floods; Inadequate or non-existent drainage system; Improper solid waste disposal that leads to the clogging of drainage systems, further lowering their water retaining capacity; Heavy siltation of rivers due to previous floods, indiscriminate dumping of garbage, encroachment of squatters and slum dwellers, and limited maintenance works; and Institutional problems and financial constraints which delay implementation of proper flood control measures. Flooding within Pasay City are generally concentrated along Taft Avenue and the areas along the Estero de Tripa de Gallina and Maricaban Creek (Figure 2. 6). The Official Website of Pasay City www. pasay. gov. ph 11
COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN OF PASAY CITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE River and Coastal Preservation As shown in Figure 2. 7, the following are the river preservation zones of the city: • Rivers and streams – These critical areas consist of easements of about 3 to 20 meters from both sides throughout the entire length of any river or stream. Areas within this range are subject to easement of public use in the interest of recreation, fishing, floatage, etc. Coastal Zone – This includes areas one kilometer from the coastline of the Manila Bay, which is city waters, and 200 meters from the coastline inland. • Areas of no significance – Areas outside the range mentioned above are nonenvironmentally-critical areas.
Liquefaction Hazard Liquefaction is associated with the phenomenon of quick-condition failure which is generally obtained when pore water in a liquefied layer rises into overlying near-surface sediments that results in a condition resembling quicksand. Areas that are prone to liquefaction are those underlain by water-saturated, thick fine to coarse sand layers such as those along the Pasig River Delta Plain, lake shore areas of Laguna de Bay and the shorelines of Manila Bay. Figure 2. 8 shows the city’s Liquefaction Hazard Map with potential zones classified into high, moderate and low based mainly on the presence of clay layers which help inhibit liquefaction.
Industrial and Airport Zones The attribute features of this map are based on the constraints on acceptable noise and air pollution levels for developments around existing industrial establishments. These noise and air pollution levels conform with the DENR Guidelines (Figure 2. 9). • Development restriction guidelines for various noise zones are: – from 45 to 55 dBA. Section of contiguous areas which are primarily used

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