Q 1: 10 marks For what decisions would estimated cost information be useful if you were a hospital administrator? The Director of a Cinema hall? The Marketing vice president of a bank? Cost information is the information about the different costs that are incurred in the operation of the organization or a business process.
Here the cost includes all cost like material cost, labor costs, and all other overhead costs that are incurred depending on the type of business they operates. The main objectives of cost information are: 1)To ascertain the cost per unit for different products. 2)To have correct analysis about the cost incurred. 3)To disclose source of wastage whether material, time or expenses. 4)To provide requisite data and serve as a guide to price fixing. 5)To reveal the source of economy. 6)To help in preparation of budget. 7)To organize internal audit system to ensure effective working.
HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATOR: In hospital, different costs are involved such as on purchase of different kinds of medicines, equipments, antibiotics, etc and for employing different people where they are needed to pay salaries and wages etc. they should also incur transportation cost and other overhead costs for the operation of day to day operations. They should ascertain the cost incurred on the medicines, salaries and wages to the staff and employees, and to know total units consumed during certain period of time, how many people are employed and their effectiveness in their work.
So by having cost information, it helps the hospital administrator in making decisions like: a)How much quantity of what medicine should be ordered within the specific time period? b)How many people to be employed and at what wages or salaries? c)What are needed and what not? d)Helps in ascertaining different amount of budget for different activities, materialsâ€¦. Etc. e)It also helps in on what field the training and developments are needed. DIRECTOR OF CINEMA HALL:
Being a director of a cinema hall it is very important to have cost information about the total cost and per unit cost incurred while building the hall or the hiring cost, monthly or per unit electric charges, per unit cost of furniture, screen cost, projector and any other cost involved while installing the infrastructure in the hall. So the estimated cost is useful for the Director of cinema hall to: 1. To fixed the rent for the movie screener. 2. Helps in determining the most profitable pricing. 3. Helps to control the cost involved, since the cost information helps in figuring out the unnecessary cost incurred. . To decide the further investment is worthwhile or not. 5. If he screens movie, then it helps in deciding and ascertaining per ticket cost. MARKETING VICE PRESIDENT OF BANK: Here the marketing vice president of the banks deals with the process of giving loan and receiving the deposits from the public, while doing so they have to employ people, they needs stationeries like pen, paper, books, register, desktop, ATM services, fund transfer etc. where it involves costs. So the cost information is very important for: 1. Fixing the interest rates for savings and loans. 2. Helps in budgeting for further development. 3.
Helps in deciding whether a particular market should be tapped or not. 4. Whether to invest in new technology or not. 5. Whether to expand the business or not. Q2: 10 marks â€œCosts may be classified in a variety of ways according to their nature and the information needs of management. â€ Explain this statement giving examples of classification required for different purposes. Cost is the amount of resources, expressed in monetary terms, given up in exchange for some goods and resources.
Cost classification is the process of grouping cost according to their common attributes. Careful classification of cost is of vital importance in order to identify the cost with cost center and cost units. With respect to their purpose the same cost is classified in different ways as follows: 1. By Nature or Elements, or analytical classification: According to this classification the cost are divided into three categories such as materials, labor, and expenses. A)Materials cost: are those cost involved for the materials that are used for the production of the particular products.
It can be further classified into direct material cost and indirect material cost. Direct material costs are those cost involved for those materials which can be identified in the product and can conveniently measure and directly charge to the product. Example: timber used in manufacturing furniture. Indirect material cost are those cost involved on those materials that do not physically becomes the part of finished product and are generally inexpensive items which may or may not become a part of the finished product. Example: threads used in stitching ghos.
B)Labor costs: are those cost involved for the human efforts by which raw materials are converted into finished products. It can be further classified into direct labor cost and indirect labor costs. Direct labor costs are those cost that are paid to those workers who are directly engaged in converting raw materials into finished products. Example: wages paid to the machine operators. Indirect labor costs are those cost that are paid to those people that are not directly engaged in the production operations but only assist in the production process. Example: wages for store keepers.
C)Expenses: are those cost other than the material costs and labor costs. It can be also classified further as direct expenses and indirect expenses. Direct expenses are those costs other than direct material cost and direct labor cost. Example: cost of patent right. Indirect expenses are those expenses other than indirect material cost and indirect labor cost. Example: rents and rates. 2. Functional classification: Here the costs are classified according to the different aspects of basic managerial activities involved in the operation of business under taking.
A)Production or manufacturing cost: this is the total cost involved in manufacture, construction and fabrication of units of production. Example: wages, raw material cost etc. B)Administrative cost: this is the cost involved in administering the process of production. Example: salaries, office rent and lighting cost etc. C)Selling and distribution cost: this is the cost involved in the process of taking finished products for sale to the final consumers. Example: carriage outward, salesmanâ€™s salary etc. So any cost involved in administration and selling and distribution are also termed as commercial cost. 3.
By degree of traceability to the product: In this case the costs are classified with their degree of traceability, such as direct and indirect cost. A)Direct cost: are those costs which are incurred for and may be conveniently identified with a particular cost center or cost unit. Example: materials used and labor employed in manufacturing furniture. B)Indirect cost: are those cost which are incurred for the benefit of a number of cost centers or cost units and cannot be conveniently identified with particular cost center or cost unit. Example: rent for the building, machinery depreciation etc. 4. By changes in activity or volume:
Here the costs are classified according to their behavior in relation to changes in the level of activity or volume of production. A)Fixed cost: are those cost which commonly remains fixed in total amount with increase or decrease in the volume of output or productive activity for a given period of time. With increase in production the per unit fixed cost decreases and vice versa. Fixed cost can be further classified as follows: i)Committed cost: are those cost that are the result of inevitable consequences of commitments previously made or are incurred to maintain certain facilities and cannot be quickly eliminated.
Example: rent, insurance etc. ii)Policy cost: are those cost incurred for implementing some management policies as executive development, housing etc. and are often discretionary. iii)Managed cost: are those cost that are incurred to insure the operating existence of the company. Example: staff service etc. iv)Discretionary cost: are those cost which are not related to the operation but can be controlled by the management. These costs usually arises due to some policy decision and new researches etc. and can be eliminated or reduced to desirable level at the discretion of the manufacturer. )Step cost: are those cost which are constant for given level of output and then increases by a fixed amount at a higher level of output. B)Variable cost: are those cost which vary in total in direct proportion to the volume of output. These costs per unit remain relatively constant with changes in production. Example: direct labor cost, material cost etc. such cost are also known as product cost because they depends on the quantum of product rather than on time. C)Semi-variable cost: are those cost which are partly fixed and partly variable. Example: telephone expenses, depreciation etc. 5.
By controllability: cost are classified according to whether or not they are influenced by the action of given member of the under taking. A)Controllable costs: are those cost which can be influenced by the action of specified member of an undertaking. It is the costs which are within the control of the management. Examples: materials cost, labor cost etc. B)Uncontrollable cost: are those cost which cannot be influenced by the action of a specific member of an undertaking. It is the costs which are not within the control of the management. Example: rent of the building, managerial salaries etc. . By normality: Here the costs are classified according to whether these costs are normally incurred at a given level of output in the conditions in which that level of activity is normally attained. A)Normal cost: it is the cost which is normally incurred at a given level of output in the conditions in which that level of output is normally attained. It is the par of cost of production. B) Abnormal cost: it is the cost which is not normally incurred at a given level of output in the conditions in which that level of output is normally attained.
It is not the part of cost of production and is charged to costing profit and loss account. 7. By relation with accounting period: It is the cost which is incurred in purchasing or maintaining an asset either to earn income or increasing the earning capacity. A)Capital cost: cost incurred in purchasing an assets or increasing the earning capacity of the business is called capital cost. Example: the cost of rolling machine in case of steel plant. B)Revenue cost: it is the cost involved in order to maintain the earning capacity of the concern such as cost of maintaining an assets or running a business.
Example: cost of materials used in production, labor charges paid etc. 8. By time: As per the period or the time the cost is incurred the cost is classified in to historical cost and predetermined cost. A)Historical cost: are those cost which are ascertained after being incurrence. It is based on recorded facts, can be verified being supported by evidences and are objective. B)Predetermined cost: are estimated costs, since they are computed in advance of production taking consideration the previous records of cost. 9. According to planning to control: planning and control are two important functions of management.
Cost accounting furnishes information to the management which is helpful in the due discharge of these two functions. A)Budgeted cost: it represent an estimate of expenditure for different phases of business operations such as manufacturing, administration, sales, research and development etc. coordinated in a well conceived framework for a period of time in future which subsequently becomes the written expression of managerial targets to be achieved. Example: raw material cost budget, labor cost budget etc. B)Standard cost: it is the cost where the budgeted costs are translated into actual operation through the instrument of standard cost.
It is defined as the predetermined cost based on a technical estimate of for materials, labor and overhead for a selected period of time and for a prescribed set of working conditions. So the standard cost is determination, in advance of production of what should be the cost. 10. By association with the product: A) Product cost: are those costs which are traceable to the product and are included in inventory evaluation. It comprises direct materials, direct labor and manufacturing overheads in case of manufacturing concerns.
These are used for valuation of inventory and are shown in the balance sheet till they are sold. B)Period costs: are those cost incurred on the basis of time such as rent, salaries etc. These may relate to administration and selling costs essential to keep the business running. Though these are not associated with production and are necessary to generate revenue but cannot be assigned to a product. These are charged to the period in which these are incurred and treated as expenses. 11. For managerial decision: are those cost that are classified according to their usage in the managerial decision making.
A)Marginal cost: it is the total of the variable cost i. e. , prime cost plus variable overheads. It is the distinction between fixed and variable costs. Here the fixed costs are ignored and only variable costs are taken into consideration for determining the cost of products and value of work-in-progress and finished goods. B)Out of pocket cost or explicit cost: are those cost which involves payment to the outsiders and thereby gives rise to the cash expenditure as opposed to such costs as depreciation, which do not involve any cash expenditure.
Such costs are relevant for price fixation during recession or when make or buy decision is to be made. C)Differential cost: are those cost that the change in cost due to change in the level of activity or pattern or method of production is known as differential cost. If the change increases the cost then it is known as incremental cost. If there is decrease in cost resulting from decrease in output, the differences is known as decremental cost. D)Sunk cost: are those cost which are irrecoverable cost and is caused by complete abandonment of a plant.
It is the written down value of the abandoned plant less its salvage value. E)Imputed and notional cost: are those cost which are notional and does not involve any cash outlay. It is the value of a benefit where no actual cost is incurred. Examples: notional rent charged on the premises owned by the proprietor, interest on capital for which no interest is paid etc. F)Opportunity cost: it is the maximum possible alternative earning that might have been earned if the productive capacity or services had been put to some alternative use.
G)Replacement cost: it is the cost at which there could be purchase of an asset or material identical to that which is being replaced or revalued. It is the replacement cost at the current market price. H)Avoidable and unavoidable cost: avoidable costs are those cost which can be eliminated if a particular product or department with which they are directly related, is discontinued. Unavoidable costs are those cost which will not be eliminated with the discontinuation of product or department. I)Explicit cost: are those cost which involves immediate payment of cash.
They can be easily measured. Example: salaries, wages, etc. J)Implicit cost: are those costs that do not involve immediate payment of cash and are known as economic cost. Example: depreciation etc. QUESTION 3. COST SHEET FOR 2, 00,000 cases PARTICULARSUNITSCOST PER UNITTOTAL COST direct material cost2,00,00061,200,000 Direct labor cost2,00,00091,800,000 Direct expenses2,00,0004800,000 PRIME COST2,00,000193,800,000 FACTORY OVERHEAD Factory expenses2,00,0003600,000 WORK COST2,00,000224,400,000 OFFICE/ADMINISTRATIVE OVERHEAD Administrative cost2,00,00061,200,000
COST OF PRODUCTION/COST OF GOODS SOLD2,00,000285,600,000 SELLING AND DISTRIBUTION OVERHEAD Marketing cost2,00,0001200,000 COST OF SALE2,00,000295,800,000 PROFIT2,00,0005. 81,160,000 SALES2,00,00034. 86,960,000 ? COST SHEET SHOWING COST INVOLVED FOR 5,000cases PARTICULARSUNITSCOST PER UNITTOTAL COST direct material cost5,000630,000 Direct labor cost5,000945,000 Direct expenses5,000420,000 PRIME COST5,0001995,000 FACTORY OVERHEAD Factory expenses5,000315,000 WORK COST5,000221,10,000 OFFICE/ADMINISTRATIVE OVERHEAD Administrative cost5,000630,000 COST OF PRODUCTION/COST OF GOODS SOLD5,000281,40,000
SELLING AND DISTRIBUTION OVERHEAD Marketing cost5,00015,000 COST OF SALE5,000291,45,000 PROFIT5,0005. 829,000 SALES5,00034. 81,74,000 Here the cost involved in production of 1unit of screwdriver amounts to Nu. 29 and when we add the profit of cost plus 20percent, per unit cost sums up to Nu. 34. 8. But here the army representative ignored the price fixed by the company saying that the company bypassed the using selling channel and the army representative wants to pay only Nu. 22. 80 Per unit. So in this case I recommend that the price should be Nu. 33. (28*120%) per unit, since the company bypassed the contract of usual selling channel but they had incurred both administrative and factory overheads for the production of the screwdrivers and on the other hand both the administrative overhead and factory overhead are fixed cost that it doesnâ€™t change with the volume of products produced. On the other hand the company had charged only the fixed factory and administrative overhead cost and they excluded all variable factory and administrative overhead cost, so the price per unit should be Nu. 33. 6 per unit.
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