Clinical Epidemiology And Decision Making March 2, 2013 Class HSA/ 535 Week 8 Assignment 4 Submission Assignment 4: Clinical Epidemiology and Decision Making Case Study Due Week 8 and worth 150 points The Pew Center on Global Climate Change reported in September 2011 that the number of flood damages in the Northeast continues to rise. In Wilkes-Barre, PA, 75,000 people were evacuated as the Susquehanna River crested at a record of 42. 7 feet. An estimated 5,400 homes and business suffered some sort of flood damage during that event, and 124 sewage treatment plants were affected by the flood, with 14 of them spilling raw sewage into waterways.
Reports indicate that mold infestation, which can cause adverse health effects, is now a major concern among residents in Pennsylvania and New York. One organization, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, will be preparing a report for citizens in the affected areas on this issue. Write a four to eight (4-8) page paper in which you: 1. Formulate a plan on how you would use clinical epidemiology to guide your opinions and actions on dealing with this issue. With Clinical Epidemiology this refers to the use of evidence which is derived from observational and experimental studies.
Because of human illness or risk factors Clinical Epidemiology primary purpose is to resolve illness and prevent risks involved. There is much evidence to clinical practices. When it comes to the prevention of mold it is because of experience from certain events that occurred like floods for example. As the number of floods increase this topic will grow. This will be a big issue in the northeast and there will be an interested in ways to prevent mold growth in homes. When it comes to mold it needs the right temperatures and moisture to grow.
Mold is commonly found in dark and damp place, where the air and sun cannot generate drying power. In many homes mold is capable of growing in crawling spaces, basements, wall cavities, mechanical systems and even showers. Most molds do not often cause disease in healthy people. However mold can cause risk to those with weak immune systems. These patients can be the young, elderly, AIDS patients, cancer patients, even diabetes patients. Mold relate illness can take three forms. The first is infection of the host and the growth of a person which grown with someone who is immune system is impaired.
Second mold can cause allergic reaction if inhaled or ingested. Then finally it can cause serious illness if not prevented or treated. It can eventually cause illness such as cancer, and asthma. 2. Propose three (3) types of molds that could develop from flood damage and the associated health risks with each type of mold. Three types of mold that can develop after a flood is Memnonielle, Stachybotrys, and Alternaria. Memnonielle is one of the most common type of mold found in homes. This mold can grow on paper, cotton and wood products.
Memnoniella can develop toxins which are harmful to animals and humans. Stachybotrys is a slimy, blackish which is referred to as toxic black mold. Like Mennoniella it can produce toxins and be harmful to your health. Stachybotrys is found in the back of walls and ceilings. This type of mold can cause cancer, asthma and headaches. Alternaria is another common mold found in home. This is an allergic mold. It can also be found on soils and plants. If you inhale this type of mold it can cause you to have asthmatic reactions, hay fever and various allergies.
Some of the health risks involved is respiratory problems such as wheezing and asthma attacks. Nasal and sinus congestion or dry hacking cough is a sign of mold. Another issue is eye irritation such as burning, watery or redness. There can also be nose of throat irritation such as sneezing or bloody noses. Some skin irritation can cause such as hives or rashes. And another problem that can result from mold is nervous system problems such as headaches, memory loss, mood changes and aches and pains. The most toxic of mold is Stachybotrys atra which resembles a black slimy tar. 3.
Outline a plan to communicate key information to health practitioners who will most likely treat the symptoms of mold. Include a timeline when this outbreak can be expected. When it comes to mold, assessing a cleanup procedure requires individuals to wear respirators that are more protective than just plan dust masks. Some other prevention methods are to fix any flood problems and to clean up any damp areas. Preventing seepage of water is important in preventing mold growth. Mold can grow 24 to 48 hours after exposure to water so it is important that you clean up right away if a flood occurs.
Making sure you have the right equipment is important . Cleanup materials is important such as disinfected products. And protection from exposure is another important tool to keep in mind 4. Compare three (3) methods that could be used to decrease mold or exposure to mold. Include the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Some methods that could decrease mold exposure is to make sure you keep that area clean. Making sure fabric in the home are clean and dry. Also store clean fabric in ventilated areas. Making sure air ducts are cleaned and if there is mold in there itâ€™s important to it clean up.
Keeping the area in the home dry is important, reducing moisture in the air by using fans, dehumidifiers, opening windows and even using air conditioners is important. Keeping your home below 40% humidity is important in the prevention of mold growth. In moisture prone areas itâ€™s important to use manmade fibers. Another way to prevent mold is to make sure you disinfect it. Checking potentially problems areas such as bathroom, laundry and mechanical rooms for mold. Using bleach will disinfect moldy areas. Material that you would need is a mask, gloves which should be latex or rubber.
Buckets a scrub brush, broom or mop, disinfected chlorine bleach, trash bags, wet dry shop vacuum, and non-ammonia detergent soap cleaner. 5. Formulate three (3) talking points the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection can use when addressing the concerns of the community on health risks associated with mold and what preventative measures can be taken avoid contracting this infection. Some talking points that can be used in addressing the concerns of health risk associate with mold be first to educate others about what to look for.
Recognizing mold like the sight of mold which can be found on walls and ceilings. There can also be a smell that comes along with mold. It can be a bad odor such as a musty earth smell or foul stench. Another topic could be about safety and preventing mold growth. Making sure the people of the community realize that cleaning up and drying out building areas is important. Opening your doors and windows can help the prevention. Making sure you use fans to dry out the building areas is important. Using disinfected bleach is another great tool o use when cleaning up mold. Keeping your children and pets away from affected areas until it is cleaned is important to keep in mind. Thoroughly clean hard surfaces such as flooring, concrete, wood, furniture, countertops and appliances. Remove items such as mattresses, carpeting, rugs, pillows and upholstered furniture. These types of items canâ€™t be cleaned and will be dangerous for family members. 6. Suggest the type of study you would use to evaluate the long-term effects of mold exposure and the reasoning behind your selection.
The type of study that I would evaluate for long term exposure would be respiratory problems and infectious diseases. Those who have breathing problems are at higher risk. And those who are vulnerable that already have severe disease such as Cancer or AIDS should also be studied. 7. Use at least four (4) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources. 1. Fleming, S. T. (2008). Managerial epidemiology: Concepts and cases (2nd ed. ). Chicago: Health Administration Press. 2. Segelken, R. (2007). After the Flood, Housing Experts Broke the Mold.
Human Ecology, 35(1), 16-17. 3. FLOOD DAMAGE AND MOLD AFTER KATRINA. (2006). Environment, 48(9), 5. 4. Chew, G. L. , Wilson, J. , Rabito, F. A. , Grimsley, F. , Iqbal, S. , Reponen, T. , & … Morley, R. L. (2006). Mold and Endotoxin Levels in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Project of Homes in New Orleans Undergoing Renovation. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(12), 1883-1889. doi:10. 1289/ehp. 9258 5. Pesce, M. (2004). KEEPING THE CREEPING LIABILITY AT BAY: THE PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF INDOOR MOLD GROWTH. Journal Of Housing & Community Development, 61(6), 26-32.
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