Pathophysiology ( due 20 hours)

 

Parts  1 and 2 have the same questions, however, you must answer with references and different writing always addressing them objectively, that is as if you were different students. Similar responses in wording or references will not be accepted.

APA format

1) Minimum 4 pages  (No word count per page)- Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum of three paragraphs per page

You must strictly comply with the number of paragraphs requested per page.

         

           Part 1: minimum  2 pages

           Part 2: minimum  2 pages 

 

  Submit 1 document per part

2)¨******APA norms

         All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraph

         Bulleted responses are not accepted

         Don’t write in the first person 

         Don’t copy and paste the questions.

         Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph

Submit 1 document per part

3)****************************** It will be verified by Turnitin (Identify the percentage of exact match of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks) 

********************************It will be verified by SafeAssign (Identify the percentage of similarity of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks)

4) Minimum 3 references (APA format) per part not older than 5 years  (Journals, books) (No websites)

All references must be consistent with the topic-purpose-focus of the parts. Different references are not allowed.

5) Identify your answer with the numbers, according to the question. Start your answer on the same line, not the next

Example:

Q 1. Nursing is XXXXX

Q 2. Health is XXXX

6) You must name the files according to the part you are answering: 

Example:

Part 1.doc 

Part 2.doc

__________________________________________________________________________________

Part 1: Pathophysiology

1. Which are the concepts of?

           a. Atrophy

           b. Physiologic atrophy

           c. Hypertrophy

           d. Hyperplasia

            e. Pathologic hyperplasia

            f.  Dysplasia

             g. Metaplasia

2. What are the main four mechanisms of Cell Injury?

3. Describe the Two differences between Cell injury:

a. Reversible vs irreversible

4. Describe the concepts of Cell Death:

a. Necrosis

b. Apoptosis.

5- Describe the functions of these cell organelles:

a. Nucleus

b. Nucleolus

c. Mitochondria

d. Ribosomes

e. Cytoplasm

f. Cell Membrane

6. Describe  2 causes and  2 symptoms:

a. Hyperkalemia

b.  Hypokalemia

7. Describe  2 causes and  2 symptoms:

a. Hypercalcemia

b.  Hypocalcemia

8. Describe  2 causes and  2 symptoms of:

a. Hypernatremia

b.  Hyponatremia.

9- What is acidosis and what is alkalosis?

Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents

10- Mr. Epperson was lifting a heavy piece of furniture when he experienced crushing pain in his chest, began sweating heavily, and was nauseated. His wife drove him to the hospital, where he was diagnosed with a myocardial infarction (heart attack) and given intravenous drugs to dissolve a clot that was obstructing a major coronary artery. After his hospitalization, Mr. Epperson’s doctor told him that some of his heart muscle had died. 

Match the questions with the correct answers regarding the cell injury in Mr. Epperson’s heart.

a. Mr. Epperson’s myocytes were initially injured by _______ (______)

b. Ischemia injures cells faster than _______ alone. (______)

c. Reversible myocyte swelling was caused by lack of _______ to fuel ion pumps. (______)

d. Irreversible myocyte injury occurred when mitochondrial and plasma _______ were disrupted. (______)

e. Dissolving the blood clot rescued some myocytes by providing _______ for generating ATP. (______)

f. Dissolving the blood clot damaged some myocytes by _______ injury. (______)

i. hypoxia

ii. sodium

iii. oxygen

iv. ATP

v. ischemia

vi. necrosis

vii. reperfusion

vii. membranes

ix. apoptosis

Part 2: Pathophysiology

1. Which are the concepts of?

           a. Atrophy

           b. Physiologic atrophy

           c. Hypertrophy

           d. Hyperplasia

            e. Pathologic hyperplasia

            f.  Dysplasia

             g. Metaplasia

2. What are the main four mechanisms of Cell Injury?

3. Describe the Two differences between Cell injury:

a. Reversible vs irreversible

4. Describe the concepts of Cell Death:

a. Necrosis

b. Apoptosis.

5- Describe the functions of these cell organelles:

a. Nucleus

b. Nucleolus

c. Mitochondria

d. Ribosomes

e. Cytoplasm

f. Cell Membrane

6. Describe  2 causes and  2 symptoms:

a. Hyperkalemia

b.  Hypokalemia

7. Describe  2 causes and  2 symptoms:

a. Hypercalcemia

b.  Hypocalcemia

8. Describe  2 causes and  2 symptoms of:

a. Hypernatremia

b.  Hyponatremia.

9- What is acidosis and what is alkalosis?

Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents

10- Mr. Epperson was lifting a heavy piece of furniture when he experienced crushing pain in his chest, began sweating heavily, and was nauseated. His wife drove him to the hospital, where he was diagnosed with a myocardial infarction (heart attack) and given intravenous drugs to dissolve a clot that was obstructing a major coronary artery. After his hospitalization, Mr. Epperson’s doctor told him that some of his heart muscle had died. 

Match the questions with the correct answers regarding the cell injury in Mr. Epperson’s heart.

a. Mr. Epperson’s myocytes were initially injured by _______ (______)

b. Ischemia injures cells faster than _______ alone. (______)

c. Reversible myocyte swelling was caused by lack of _______ to fuel ion pumps. (______)

d. Irreversible myocyte injury occurred when mitochondrial and plasma _______ were disrupted. (______)

e. Dissolving the blood clot rescued some myocytes by providing _______ for generating ATP. (______)

f. Dissolving the blood clot damaged some myocytes by _______ injury. (______)

i. hypoxia

ii. sodium

iii. oxygen

iv. ATP

v. ischemia

vi. necrosis

vii. reperfusion

vii. membranes

ix. apoptosis

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