Revolutionary Studies Questions

Please consider using the resources attached underneath each question to answer the question in full!

  1. In less than 100 words, comment on some interesting, recent, or curious border conflict for you. It can be from the country that you´re specializing in or any other country in the Latin American region. If you find, attach a map and the sources of your finding.

For answering it discuss: Dormant Dispute over Border between Uruguay and Brazil

  • Independence processes are central to the creation of national identities and political myths. This week, look at the independence of your country and summarize this process in approx. 350 words. Consider these three main questions as a guide: –
  1. Who are the people who led it? There is a “founding father”?
  2. What are the main conflicts/situations during the independence process?
  3. Which key institutions emerge? Do not restrain yourself to constitutional institutions, also check if some academic, religious, military, cultural, or political institution, like parties, universities, or national theater, were created during the independence process.

For answering it check attached reference: Brazilian formal independence and the problem of Eurocentrism in international historical sociology

Also, check the following link: https://oxfordre.com/latinamericanhistory/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199366439.001.0001/acrefore-9780199366439-e-278#acrefore-9780199366439-e-278-div1-5

  • The cases of Cuba, Brazil, or Mexico (the three proposed study cases for this week) show how emancipatory changes had different ways to happen. Whichever case you selected, Describe the cultural and political tensions between the “liberal” and the “conservative” sides on the conflict.

Please, not just summarize the main elements of the selected conflict, instead interpret the evidence that you have in the paper using the ideas described by Chasteen´s chapter. In that process, identify key actors and their ideas, which institutions are in dispute, and how the author´s argument describes a socio-cultural transformation that the people´s in these countries lived. (800 words)

For answering it use the attached reference: Coffee planters, politics, and development in Brazil. Latin American Research Review, 22(3), 69-90

Also, check the following link: https://oxfordre.com/latinamericanhistory/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199366439.001.0001/acrefore-9780199366439-e-278#acrefore-9780199366439-e-278-div1-5

Revolutionary Study Questions

Question 1: border disputes

One of the interesting border conflicts is the dormant dispute over the border between Uruguay in brazil. The border between Brazil and Uruguay has an extension of about 1000 kilometers. The separation occurs through an imaginary line known as a dry border, so there is no limitation of the interactions among the people living in both places. Both Brazil and Uruguay were European colonies that adopted the colonizers’ language as their official language when they became independent states. the Portuguese and Spanish had disputes over their territories’ geopolitical demarcation. The southern Brazilian establishes itself by using the border as a reference point (Zanini, 2019). Arguably, there is no geographical barrier between the two countries, which led to the trespassing of the subjects who operate their daily lives in the region. Hence one learns the importance of a way of living pervaded by diverse conceptions and practices. On the border between Brazil and Uruguay, it is vital to remember that the conflict among language and culture is constant. Thus bilingualism and transculturality are mostly experienced in that borer region.

Question 2: independent processes

The struggle for independence in brazil was influenced by the distinct connections which bound Portuguese America to Europe, the direction assumed by the revolution and the results of the movement were determined to a huge extent by relations with the European powers, independence was finally won by diplomacy (Pimenta, 2016). Notably, Tiradentes, also known as tooth puler, was a people involved in the independence process. Tiradentes set in motion the first rebellion against the Portuguese in 1789, who conquered his forces, executed him, and unintendedly made him a hero in his death. Other foreign contributions to the historiography of independence include Wiliam manning, Richard graham, among other people.

There were various conflicts dung the independence process. Brazil went through various regional revolts, resulting in thousands of deaths though the economy was not affected. (Pimenta, 2016). there were series of political and military occurrences in 1821 and 1824. They entailed conflicts between Brazil and Portugal concerning their need for independence dispensed by the Brazilian kingdom. Since Brazil was under Portugal’s rule, Portugal put limitations on establishing manufacturing in the colony, which affected different economic aspects. The economic, political, and social impacted factors lead to the Brazilian revolution. Another conflict that occurred during brazil’s independence was the cisplatin war between Brazil and Buenos Aires’ government since brazil failed to acknowledge integration of the eastern reserve set into the Brazilian kingdom. However, the conflict came to an end with British mediation and the former development of the Uruguay state, and the financial problems for both states.

Some key institutions emerged using the Brazilian independence process. During the 19th era, when brazil established its state recognition, the agriculture institution was vital for the country to grow. The Portuguese state chose to involve themselves in extensive manufacturing, which leads to the development of sugarcane exports in the Brazilian region. Notably, sugarcane production became to be one of the key economic models enhancing the agricultural institution. other notable institutions created include the Brazilian national archives, the national library, and the geographic institute

Question 3 Liberal and Conservative Sides of Conflict        

Many complex relations faced Brazil and Uruguay relations since they share close political and economic ties. Politics overshadowed the relations in the 19th century and 20th century, more so the domestic politics, which resulted in the two countries keeping distance. Their bilateral relationship was defined by the Uruguayan civil war and the Paraguayan war. Therefore, the political protest movements that immerged some authorities’ ordinated concerns were represented by force (Pimenta, 2016). Today Brazil defines Uruguay as a deliberate ally due to the treaty signed for closer political and economic ties.

Consequently, the Portuguese colonized Brazil, whereby the colonization comprises the period from the year 1500 during the reign of King Manuel with the arrival of the Portuguese to 1815 when Brazil was upraised to a kingdom. However, the colonization was characterized by the development of sugar and gold production and slave labor, and there was a conflict between the French and Dutch. During that time Portuguese realized the availability of red dye and exploitable products. Therefore, they attempted to force indigenous groups in Brazil to clear the trees (Pimenta, 2016).  Since he declared Brazil independence from the Portuguese on September 7th, 1822, Prince Dom Petro was one of Brazil’s founding fathers after a two-year war of independence. During the most colonial period, the Portuguese settlers faced conflicts with the French and the Dutch since they wanted to control their territory. Arguably, the Portuguese knew that France was sending large missions to possess Brazil by inheriting the leadership, but they later failed (Pimenta, 2016). Basically, in the 16th century, sugarcane production was too high hence uplifting the Brazilian economy due to the labor of slaves on the huge plantations to produce sugar for export to Europe.

 During the process, the Portuguese got help from the Europeans who lived with the native people and knew their languages and culture. Nevertheless, in the 18th century, there was the discovery of gold, which triggered enthusiasm to the Portuguese and led to an economy of disarray and a period of war in opposition to Spain and the Netherland. The large portions in Brazil were gold, which turned it to be the main economic activity. Still, later the production decreased, leading to a period of relative stagnation in the Brazilian hinterland. The Brazilians established some suitable social, political, and economic structures from the colony, which helped Brazil attain regional eminence (Pimenta, 2016). The Portuguese also had multiple administration versions, which led to centralized administration and unification of the colony, hence favoring social-economic growth. There was a frontier expansion upon the Tordesillas treaty, regional connections and development, and economic uniformity (Pimenta, 2016). Portugal’s commercial colony was aimed at developing national identity defenses in Latin America.

Due to the coffee economy, the elites were linked with the alternative economy, and there were interests of differences from those associated with big Fazenda. Notably, the rising alternative economy’s interests and the emergence of a smallholding system in coffee production and cereals such as beans, rice, and maize reflected a huge process of the Paulista agrarian economy (Font, 1987). During the years 1926 and 1930, there was an increase of sharp party struggles that involved Partido Democratic, which evolved due to the elite’s dissatisfaction with the state’s middle groups. As party conflicts became the main channel for bringing up political tension, the associations began to participate in a relatively circumspect representative role. Even though coffee’s issues continued, thus becoming the main political agenda all through the entire decade (Font, 1987).  Nonetheless, the coffee planter congress largely attributed to attack the government, which brought the coffee crisis in 1929. Links between all the Paulista elite and the opposition parties overthrew the PRP and the Old Republic in 1930, where several indicators of coffee elite discontent were found. While the PD was found to have fewer industrialists than PRP, for example, 35% versus 60%, the PD was found less represented by landowners (Font, 1987). On the other hand, DP was reported to have a higher proportion of upper-class professionals, for instance, the lawyers and educators, which stressed the presence of competition. The phenomenon march of coffee in Sao Paulo’s plateaus in the 1880s brought to the state undisputed leader of the world’s coffee economy.

Changing patterns of elite political variances in the 1920s suggests an increase of serious intra-elite differentiation and many conflicts whereby dissidence threats were triggered by a growing tide of political resistance and later frontal attack on the Republican regime. Besides, Sao Paulo’s state idea was to boast the largest coffee economy globally and expand industrialization (Font, 1987). The state was in the way of becoming a showcase of socio-economic development in Latin America. Indeed, socio-cultural transformed the people whereby millions of Europeans and Japanese migrants got to the state with the idea of providing human resources that were needed for the economy. Hence, expanding the economy and colonizing the frontier lands, most migrated to provide labor, and others brought pioneering and entrepreneurial talents. (Font, 1987). Significantly, the laborer and pioneering were essential to Sao Paulo’s effectiveness, making Sao Paulo the producer of half the word’s coffee by the end of World War.  Importantly, the expansion of a substitute economy and reorganization by political elites following the authority was traditionally practiced. Basically, this was done by planters who posed an essential basis in creating a border develop mentalist alliance in Sao Paulo’s state since there was the internal economy’s development.

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