A SEMINAR PROJECT ON â€œTOURISM INDUSTRY IN INDIAâ€ SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SESSION (2011-2013) SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Mrs. PRIYA ARORA JYOTI PRASAD DAS Asst. Prof. MBA MBA 1ST SEM Roll no: 11221 (Technology education &Research Integrated Institutions) Affiliated to Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra .
CONTENT Chapter – 1 INTRODUCTION OF TOURISM Chapter – 2 DEFINITION Chapter – 3 Introduction to Indian tourism Chapter – 4 Unique Characteristics of the Tourism Industry Chapter – 5 TourismÂ industry andÂ Indian economy Chapter – 6 TOURISM STATISTICS Chapter â€“ 7 A S. L. E. P. T ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN INDIA Chapter – 8 VARIOUS SECTOR OF TOURISM INDUSTRY Chapter – 9 How to Market Tourism Chapter-10 Indian Tourism Industry Analysis Chapter-11 SWOT ANALYSIS Chapter12- CASE STUDY OF INCRIDIBLE INDIA * Chapter13- DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE IN INDIA
Chapter14- IMPACT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN INDIA Chapter15- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TOURISM INÂ INDIA Chapter16- CONCLUSION Chapter17- BIBLIOGRAPHY Chapter – 1 INTRODUCTION OF TOURISM Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited”.
Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2004, there were over 763 million international tourist arrivals. Tourism is vital for many countries, due to the income generated by the consumption of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry, and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis, accommodation such as hotels, restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues, and other hospitality industry services such as spas and resorts.Â Also you can read aboutÂ History of the Culinary Arts.
Chapter – 2 DEFINITION One of the earliest definitions of tourism was provided by the Austrian economist in 1910, who defined it as, “bob total of operators, mainly of an economic nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or a region. ” Hunziker and Krapf, in 1941, defined tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity. In 1976 Tourism Society of England defined it as “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes. ” In 1981 International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined Tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home environment. Chapter – 3 Introduction to Indian tourism India’sÂ amazing diversity offers you everything you could ever want in a visit.
From the moment that you set foot in India to be greeted by a gracefulÂ namaste, a gesture that denotes both welcome and respect, you are on the way to one of the most rewarding experiences of your life. Bounded by the majestic Himalayan ranges in the north and edged by a spectacular coastline surrounded by three seas, India is a vivid kaleidoscope of landscapes, magnificent historical sites and royal cities, golden beaches, misty mountain retreats, colourful people, rich cultures and festivities.
At any part of the year Indian can offer you a dazzling array of destinations and experiences. In summer, when the subcontinent is sizzling, there are spectacular retreats amidst the heady beauty of the Himalayas or the lush heights o the Western Ghats with cool trekking trails, tall peaks to conquer stretches of white water for the adventure seekers. In the cool of an Indian winter, cities come alive with cultural feasts of music and dance. The balmy weather is an ideal time for you to visit India hopping through romantic cities studded with ancient and medieval forts and palaces.
The sun-drenched beaches are inviting and wildlife sanctuaries with their abundance of flora and fauna are a buzz with the nurture of the young. You can taste the delights of the Indian monsoon anywhere in the country-on a camel safari in the Rajasthan desert when nature comes alive and the peacocks dance, along the west coast where the relentless slant ingrain paints the countryside in brilliant greens or even trekking amidst the stark grandeur of mountain valleys lying in the rain shadow of the Himalayas.
Experience exotic India live like a maharaja in the rich ambiance of royal forts and palaces that are now heritage hotels; luxuriate in the serene beauty of a coral island with its turquoise lagoon; participate in the exuberance of a village fair or a colourful festival; day dream on a house boat drifting down the palm – fringed backwaters; delight in the grace of dancer or shop till you drop buying exquisite silks, carved figurines, brass and silver ware, marble inlaid with semi-precious stones, finely crafted jewellery, miniature paintings, carpets…. at unbelievable prices.
As you travel across the length and breadth of this vast nation, you can see history unfold. You can see palaces, forts, temples, mosques and churches which have been witnesses to timeless pasts and which bring before you the glorious traditions, culture and richness which had made this sub-continent prime choice of destination for explorers down ages. India, always warm and inviting, is a place of infinite variety – one that favours you with a different facet of its fascination every time you come on a visit. What is the real meaning of Tourism in India?
India, located in Asia is Bounded by the Himalayan ranges in the north, surrounded by the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean). In 2006, about 4 million foreign tourists visited India and spent US$ 8. 9 billion. Delhi is the capital of India. A fine blend of old and new, ancient and modern in every stream of life is the soul of Delhi. A melting pot of cultures, religions and castes makes Delhi a diverse place. Delhi has been the capital of India from the mythological days. The rulers left behind their trade marks in the architecture.
Tughlaqabad fort and the Qutub Minar, the Jama Masjid and the Lotus bah’ai temple, The Humayun’s tomb and the Red Fort, and India Gate and the Magnificent President’s house (Rashtrapati Bhavan). Delhi is famous for its wide roads and crisp winters. One of the few places in India where colours of nature changes with the seasons. From Kerala to Kashmir and from Gujarat to Assam all the mouth watering delicacies and shopping goods are found in Delhi. The cosmopolitan nature of the city has only added to the beauty and glory of it. Big gardens, wide roads, ancient structures, and power of politics is what Delhi is all about.
Delhi is popularly known for its monuments. Most of them which are built by the Mughal Emperors. The state of Goa is situated on the West Coast of India, between the borders of Maharashtra and Karnataka and is better known to the world as the former Portuguese enclave on Indian soil. With the rule of the Portuguese for over 450 years and the consequential influence of the Latin culture, Goa presents a somewhat different picture to the foreign visitor than any other part of the country. The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and Hindu temples.
The Bom Jesus cathedral, Mangueshi Temple and Shantadurga are famous attractions in Goa. Kerala is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. Nicknamed as one of the “10 paradises of the world” by the National Geographic traveller, Kerala is famous especially for its ecotourism initiatives. Its unique culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demography, has made it one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Growing at a rate of 13. 31%, the tourism industry significantly contributes to the state’s economy.
The Kerala Tourism Development Corporation, the government agency that oversees the tourism prospects of the state, has adopted the brand “God’s Own Country” for its campaigns. The slogan holds global Superbrand status . Unlike most other states in India, Maharashtra boasts of a large number of popular and revered religious venues that are heavily frequented by locals as well as out-of-state visitors. It also boasts of the City of Mumbai with its Bollywood fame, ancient cave temples at Ajanta and Ellora, the Tuljabhavani temple at Tuljapur, the Mahalakshmi temple in Kolhapur, the city of Pune the eat of the Maratha empire, the fantastic Ganesh chaturthi celebrations and much more Rajasthan, literally meaning “the land of the kings”, is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in Northern India. The vast sand dunes of the Thar Desert attract millions of tourists from around the globe every year. Attractions of Rajasthan Jaipur – The capital of Rajasthan, famous for its rich history and royal architecture. Jodhpur – fortress-city at the edge of the Thar Desert, famous for its blue homes and architecture. Udaipur – Known as the “Venice” of India. Jaisalmer – famous for its golden fortress.
Barmer – Barmer and surrounding areas offer perfect picture of typical Rajasthani villages. Bikaner – famous for its medieval history as a trade route outpost Mount Abu. Pushkar-It has the only Brahma temple in the world and much, much more. Chapter – 4 Unique Characteristics of The Tourism Industry There are four main characteristics which distinguish the tourism industry from other service providers: Inflexibility: The tourism industry is highly inflexible in terms of capacity. The number of beds in a hotel or seats on an airplane is fixed so it is not possible to meet sudden upsurges in demand.
Similarly, restaurant tables, hotel beds and airplane seats remain empty and unused in periods of low demand. The seasonal nature of tourism activity exacerbates this problem. Perishability: Tourism services are highly perishable. An unused hotel bed or an empty airplane seat represents an immediate loss of that service as a means of earning profit. This has an impact on overall industry profitability. Fixed location: Tourism destinations are fixed locations so effort must be concentrated in communicating the facility to the potential consumer.
A consumer can conveniently watch a Hollywood movie at the local cinema but has to be persuaded to travel to India to see the Taj Mahal. Relatively Large Financial Investment: Every modern tourist establishment and facility requires large investment, frequently over a long time scale. This means that the level of risk and the rate of return are critically important to tourism management. Classification of Services ON THE BASIS OF THE END USER The end user for Tourism Services is always the CONSUMER, and therefore on the basis of the end user, Tourism Services fall under the category of â€˜Consumersâ€™.
However these consumers may vary, which is why Tourism Services also differ. SERVICE PRODUCT CONTINUUM As per the Product-Service Continuum, Tourism Services fall under the category of â€œGoods + Servicesâ€. The core product is the destination, which is purely intangible. However, tourism is linked to a number of tangible goods such as souvenirs, cuisine, etc which constitute an important part of any vacation or holiday any consumer might take. Therefore it cannot be classified as only services, and falls under the category of â€œGoods + Servicesâ€. PEOPLE BASED SERVICES
Tourism Services are high contact services, as people interact with people at virtually EVERY stage of the way. Tourism services are very people-oriented services, and the service people are plenty and have high contact with the consumers. The consumer interacts with a myriad of service people starting from when he books his ticket and throughout the course of his holiday. EXPERTISE Tourism Services are mostly professional services. The service people include travel agents, tour operators, hoteliers, caterers, tour guides, etc. Almost all of these people are trained and are professionals.
They might be trained by professional institutes (IATA, IITM, etc. ) or by the agency/company they are working for (SOTC). ORIENTATION TOWARDS PROFITS All Tourism Services are commercial, and are undertaken with a view to earn profits * * * DOMESTIC OR FORIEGN TOURISM As per 1998 figures, Domestic tourists traveling through the country were 167 million approximately. Tourist arrivals in India for the year as on March 2002 were 23,70,784 (Inbound Tourism). The number of Indian citizens traveling abroad was 38,10,908 (Outbound Tourism). Chapter – 5 TourismÂ industry andÂ Indian economy 1. TourismÂ Industry ;Â Indian Economy 2. Introduction InÂ a country as diverse and complex asÂ India, it is not surprising to find that people here reflect the rich gloriesÂ ofÂ the past, the culture, traditions and values relative to geographic locations and the numerous distinctive manners, habits and food that will always remainÂ trulyÂ Indian, according to five thousand yearsofÂ recorded history. * TheÂ tourismÂ industryÂ inÂ India is substantial and vibrant, and the country is fast becoming a major global destination. Indiaâ€™s travel andÂ tourismÂ industry is oneÂ ofÂ the most profitableÂ industriesÂ inÂ the country, and also credited with contributing a substantial amountÂ ofÂ foreignÂ exchange.
This is illustratedÂ byÂ the fact that during 2006, four million tourists visitedÂ India and spent US $8. 9 billion. 3. * TourismÂ ;Â Indian Economy * TourismÂ industry has become an important partÂ ofÂ theÂ Indian economy. Its contribution to the GDP and to the employmentÂ inÂ the country is close to 6% and 9% respectively for the year 2005-06 and 2006-07. Thisindustry is oneÂ ofÂ the majorÂ foreignÂ exchangeÂ earnersÂ inÂ India. TheÂ tourismÂ sector is linked to many other sectorsÂ ofÂ the economy, affecting theÂ growthÂ and employmentÂ inÂ those sectors. * Several reasons are cited for theÂ growthÂ and prosperityÂ ofÂ India travel andÂ tourismÂ industry.
DisposableincomeÂ inÂ India has grownÂ byÂ 10. 11% annually from 2001-2006, and muchÂ ofÂ that is being spent on travel. * 4 * TodayÂ Indian economy depends a lot upon itsÂ invisibles andÂ tourismÂ sector is a major partÂ ofÂ it. â€œ It is a treat to watch such typeÂ ofÂ unityâ€ remarked the PresidentÂ ofÂ India at theÂ inaugurationÂ ofÂ fifth Global Travel andÂ TourismÂ SummitÂ inÂ New Delhi on 8th April, 2005. * India nÂ tourismÂ crossed 3 million mark (3. 37million)Â inÂ numberÂ ofÂ arrivalsÂ ofÂ foreignÂ touristsÂ inÂ year 2004, showing a remarkableÂ growthÂ ofÂ 24 % over the previous year. The numberÂ ofÂ foreignÂ tourist arrivalsÂ in2004, 3. 7 million,Â inÂ India formed 0. 44%Â ofÂ total worldÂ foreignÂ tourist arrivals. TheÂ foreignÂ exchangeearnings have also grownÂ byÂ 38% to US$ 4810 billion. * The total contributionÂ ofÂ this sector, direct andÂ indirect, toÂ Indian GDP is around 5. 83%. This sector is directly andÂ indirectly linked to many other sectorsÂ inÂ the economy. AÂ growthÂ inÂ tourismÂ industry affectsindustries like handicrafts, handlooms, transportation (mainly aviation), real estate (orÂ infrastructure) and many more. OneÂ ofÂ the major sectors to whichÂ tourismÂ is linked to is Real Estate * Both these sectors act complementary sectors to each other.
More the numberÂ ofÂ tourist arrivals more is the requirementÂ ofÂ betterÂ infrastructure, hotel, restaurants, houses etc. The point to be noted over here is that this real estate sector is not a stand alone sector. It is further linked to more than 200 different sectors like cement, steel, glass, electrical, water supply, carpentry, transportation and many more. * Another major aspectÂ ofÂ theÂ tourismÂ industry is the employment opportunities attached to it. Tourismindustry is the largest employerÂ inÂ the world. InÂ India, the direct employment fromÂ tourismÂ contributes to 4. 9%Â ofÂ the total employmentÂ inÂ the country. Adding theÂ indirect employment to it, the figure goes up to 8. 27% i. e. the total employment generatedÂ byÂ theÂ industryÂ inÂ India is around 40 million. 3 Also, 50%Â ofÂ this employment generated isÂ indirect. This means that theÂ growthÂ inÂ thisÂ industry has a strong impact on the employmentÂ inÂ otherÂ industries also. 3. * The year 2004-05 sawÂ tourismÂ emerging as oneÂ ofÂ the major sectors forÂ growthÂ ofÂ theÂ Indian economy; theÂ foreignÂ exchangeÂ earningsÂ increased from Rs. 16,429 crore to 21,828 crore. InÂ 2006, theÂ tourismindustry registered aÂ growthÂ rateÂ ofÂ 17. %Â inÂ foreignÂ tourist arrivals, which has been the highestÂ inÂ last 10 years. ForeignÂ exchangeÂ earnings grew at an even higher rate 30. 2%. * IndiaÂ tourismÂ industry is thriving due to anÂ increaseÂ inÂ the arrivalÂ ofÂ foreignÂ and greater than before travelbyÂ Indians to domestic and abroad destinations. The visitors are pouringÂ inÂ from all over the world: Europe, Africa, Southeast Asia and Australia. At the same time, the numberÂ ofÂ Indians traveling has alsoincreased. Some tourists come from the Middle East to witness the drenching monsoon rainsÂ inÂ India, a phenomenon never seenÂ inÂ desert climates. . * The disastrous tsunami didnâ€™t affectÂ Indiaâ€™sÂ tourismÂ industry, as tourist arrivalsÂ inÂ India rose 23. 5%Â inDecember 2004 and tourist arrivals crossed the 3 million mark for the first timeÂ inÂ 2004. * Global recession has failed to affect KashmirÂ tourismÂ industry as more and more tourists continue to throng the valley. According to the playersÂ inÂ theÂ tourismÂ industry, many domestic tourists have already cancelled their tours to European countries and are coming to Kashmir valley. This has helped toincrease the numberÂ ofÂ footfallsÂ inÂ Kashmir. 5. MedicalÂ Tourism The next big opportunityÂ inÂ IndianÂ TourismÂ industry could be MedicalÂ Tourism. MedicalÂ tourismÂ has the potential to generate Rs. 10,000 crore. To cater this opportunity, theÂ TourismÂ MinistryÂ ofÂ India has set a targetÂ ofÂ attracting one million medical touristsÂ byÂ 2010. It has the potential to become a major driverÂ ofIndian economy likeÂ Information Technology. The medical proceduresÂ inÂ India are much cheaper as compared to US and European countries. * For exampleÂ inÂ April 2005 Madras Medical Mission hospital successfully completed a complex heart operation for US$8000 on an 84 year old patient which would have cost US$40,000Â inÂ US.
Another advantage forÂ India is that, it can provide many medical treatments at one place, like yoga, meditation, ayurveda, and allopathy. Indian government is also taking steps to promote MedicalÂ Tourism. 6. Leakages Though theÂ tourismÂ industry is booming and helping bothÂ Indian and world economies to grow, there are a few downsides to thisÂ industry. A huge seasonal employment existsÂ inÂ this sector. This seasonal employment is mainlyÂ inÂ developing countries whereÂ tourismÂ industry is not much developed. InÂ these countries for a few months theÂ tourismÂ is low and comparatively fewer workforces are required.
Here the jobs are also under paid when compared to the similar jobsÂ inÂ developed countries and areÂ inÂ unsociable hours. 7. * The term Leakage means that outÂ ofÂ the total amountÂ ofÂ money spent on theÂ tourismÂ ofÂ a country, a major part leaks outÂ ofÂ that country (mainly developing) to the other countries (mainly developed). This leakage occurs when the host country wants to provideÂ international facilities to their tourists. This leakage can be â€œinternal leakageâ€ or external leakageâ€. * Many times the tourists arriving the host country demand for the goods like some equipment, food, drinks etc. hich the host country cannot provide them. This leads toÂ internal leakage because to fulfill the needsÂ ofÂ tourists, the host country has to import these goods from other countries. External leakage occurs because; these host countries (mainly developing) might not have enough capital to build aninfrastructure to attractÂ foreignÂ tourists, which calls for anÂ investment fromÂ foreignÂ countries (mainly developed). Now these externalÂ investors are a partÂ ofÂ their business and will take a major partÂ ofÂ there earnings. InÂ India the leakage is around 40%, i. e. 0%Â ofÂ the earnings generatedÂ byÂ IndiaÂ tourismÂ leaks outÂ ofÂ the country. 8. Steps takenÂ byÂ Government * The GovernmentÂ ofÂ India has adopted the policies which are benefitingÂ TourismÂ inÂ India. Improved touristinfrastructure, enhanced air connectivity, improved roadÂ infrastructure, road showsÂ inÂ Europe and many otherÂ initiatives have helpedÂ IndianÂ Tourism. The Budget 2006-07 also mentions about the developmentofÂ 15 tourist destinations and circuits. It will identify 50 villages with core competenciesÂ inÂ handicrafts, handloom, and culture close to these circuits and develop them.
Four new hotel managementÂ institutes will be established. C Along with this, the reductionÂ inÂ FBT (fringe benefit tax) on travel and hospitality will also help theÂ industry. 5Â InÂ 2004-05, a nation wide campaign was launched, for generating awareness about the effectsÂ ofÂ tourismÂ and preservationÂ ofÂ our rich heritage ; culture, cleanliness and warm hospitality. Chapter – 6 TOURISM STATISTICS Tourism is an industry that operates on a massively broad scale: it embraces activities ranging from the smallest sea-side hotel; to air-lines, multi-national hotel chains and major international tour operators.
Originally, non-traditional industries such as tourism emerged as a solution to strike a balance between ecology and industry. The tourism industry is now one of the largest sectors earning foreign exchange for the exchequer. In the face of such benefits, many countries have started assigning due weightage to the tourism industry in their national development agenda. Tourism statistics: Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries at present and holds the status of the world’s no. 1 industry. The tourism industry as a whole is presently estimated to earn over US$ 3. trillion worldwide. The industry creates a job every 2. 4 seconds with every one of those direct jobs creating another 11 indirect ones. Spending on tourism amounts to 5%-10% of total consumer, spending in a year worldwide. India’s share of the total market is a pittance at 0. 51%. The non-tourist countries like Malaysia and Indonesia get much more tourists than India. However, the average duration of stay of foreign tourist in India is one of the highest in the world. On an average, it exceeds 27 days in the case of non-package tourists and is 14 days in the case of package tourists.
Tourism has the distinction of being the third largest export industry after gems and jewellery and readymade garments in India. The Tourism industry’s foreign exchange earnings in India are around $3. 2 billion. Tourism is the highest foreign exchange earner if we consider the fact that net value addition in Gems and jewellery is less than 30 % whereas, in tourism it is more than 90 %. India: Tourism Revenues and Expenditures 1990-2010 It also has one of the best employment multipliers when compared with any other industry in India. It generates maximum job opportunities, as it provides direct employment to 9. million people and indirect employment to another 12. 4 million. But these statistics not appear so impressive when viewed in the global perspective and compared with that of other countries shown in the graph below. Tourists Arrivals and Receipts From Tourism 1996 Source: 1. Report, World Tourism Organization-1996. 2. Study by Mahajan and Aibara, Consultants to the Tourism and Hotel Industry, 1997. Tourism has been a neglected sector in India. Though it was recognized as a priority sector in the Seventh Five Year Plan, hardly anything was done to promote this industry.
Though the government has promised to give industry status to tourism, still, budgetary support for this department is a mere Rs. 379 crore. This is despite a total tax collection of about Rs. 2000 crore in 1996 from this sector. The tourism industry currently127th on the list of priorities of the Indian government. It is true that India has yet to reach the prosperity level where leisure activity can be included in the priority sector but, if solving the country’s unemployment and foreign exchange problems are on the top of the national agenda, the potential of this industry cannot be neglected.
Chapter – 7 A S. L. E. P. T. Analysis Of The Tourism Industry In India: Social: Tourism was always looked upon as something that led to the destruction of the social fabric of a place. The more the amount of outside people coming into a place, the more the perceived risk of that place losing its identity. A good example is Goa. From the late 60’s to the early 80’s when the Hippy culture was at its height, Goa was a haven for such hippies. Here they came in thousands and changed the whole culture of the state. This had a ripple effect on the country.
People became cautious, especially of the international tourists. Whenever a certain place became famous, the example of Goa was cited to discourage the inflow of international; tourist However some places such as Kerala and Rajasthan have been able to strike a balance between their own culture and the demands of the international tourists and have profited handsomely in the bargain. People are now adopting themselves to the fact that tourism pays and it can be a major source of income for them. In addition, tourism as a form of recreation has really caught on.
People themselves have started traveling and are willing to travel to a place that is out of the way and exotic. While traditionally traveling on a holiday meant going to a hill station or a beach, now people are willing to go in for adventure tourism and also visit places that might be exotic and cannot really be called hospitable. For example, now places like Leh and Lakshwadeep are mentioned in the same breath as Goa or Kashmir. Legal: The laws that govern the industry are not the same in all the parts of the country.
Many of the laws that are in effect are old and archaic, and not geared to meet the challenges of the 21st century. With respect to taxation, the World Travel and Tourism Council has observed that â€œTax paid by tourists in India is the highest in the world. Indian hotels charge about 40% tax compared to other Asian countries where it varies between 3% and 6%”. Such high taxation renders the tourism sector as a whole uncompetitive. Further, there is considerable disparity between state level taxes, especially on food and beverages. In fact, the sales tax on imported beverages varies widely, e. g. 63% in Karnataka to 28. 5% in West Bengal. With respect to Foreign Investment in any tourism related venture, clearance must be obtained from the Central government (RBI or Foreign Investment Promotion Board). 51% foreign equity is automatically approved subject to meeting certain prescribed criteria, including having a capital base proposal below US $143 million (Rs. 6 billion). In the case of NRIs, 100% foreign equity is automatically approved. Foreign equity holding above 51 percent are possible, but are subject to FIPB approval. It is to be noted that the Ministry of Industry provides final clearance of FIPB approvals.
Dividends on such investments are repatriable. The National Policy on Tourism lays emphasis on sustainable development of tourism. In accordance, the Government has brought out a comprehensive Eco Tourism Policy and Guidelines. There are several Acts and laws, which ensure sustainable tourism. These are the Wild Life Protection Act 1972, the Environment (Protection) Act 1986, and Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986. These do not set aside any specific area for tourism, but such areas have to be identified by the State Governments and obtain the required approvals/relaxations.
Eco-tourism policies and Guidelines have been formulated by the Government in consultation with the industry and are being implemented on a voluntary basis. Economic: The tourism industry not unlike the other industries grows with the increase in the spending of the people. The more the people spend the more the industry grows. The spending power of the people has been increasing in the country and all over the world. Since we are concentrating on the international tourists, the large increase in the spending power in most developed countries has left a large amount of idle cash in their hands.
This has led to a tourism boom the world over and India has been no exception. There have been more people coming into the country with more cash than ever before. This has lead to an increase in the demand for better hotels. People who previously used to come to the country on a shoestring budget and hunt around for the cheapest accommodation can now afford to go in for luxury hotels. This has led to an increase in the number of hotels in the country. However, an increase in spending does not only limit itself to accommodation. The increase in the spending is also evident in the increase in the number of people traveling by air.
Even the number domestic tourists traveling by air has dramatically gone up. Political: The political factors are the main driving force of the industry. The Indian tourism industry is built on the backbone of Government support and the industry cannot sustain itself without it. The various archaeological sites and the places of historical importance, the roads and the railways are all in the hands of the Government. All the support services like the hotel industry, the airlines industry and the tourist operators to name some are heavily dependent on the support and the cooperation of the Government.
The major reason as to why tourists visit India is for the vast and rich heritage that our country has. That is under the control of the Government, through the Archaeological Survey of India. Any policy change that comes into force can have dramatic effect on the way the industry players perform. For example, the Government charges high rates of taxes on the luxury and the star category hotels and this has always been a cause of disagreement between the hotel associations and the Government. There are many areas where the growth of tourism has not been rapid or has seen dramatic fall because the political environment has not been conducive.
Examples are the North East for the former and Kashmir for the latter. The neglect of the Government in developing the North-East has led to a situation where there is practically no tourism in the seven states. Similarly, the political turmoil in the state of Kashmir and now in Gujarat has caused a virtual decimation of the flourishing tourism industry. However, there has been a change in many of the policies of the Government with regard to the tourism industry. The hotel industry has been getting many incentives and many State Governments are encouraging the growth of major hotels in their states.
After years of tight control over airport infrastructure, Government has finally taken the decision to privatize the airports. Technological: Although technology does not seem to be a major influence at first glance, it plays a major part in the promotion of a place. Better communication facilities are one of the first prerequisites for growth in the inflow of tourists. This has been made possible with technology. Improved technology in the field of communication at cheaper costs has resulted in many remote and inaccessible areas of the country getting connected to the rest of the world.
This connectivity has made these places visible to the world. Better communication means access to media. And that is very important if any place wants to be on the world tourist map. Similarly better transportation facilities have lead to a dramatic increase in the number of tourists visiting any particular place. The presence of an airport and the availability of frequent flights are a great convenience to any traveler. TYPES OF CUSTOMERS & SEGMENTATION * A. Users Of Tourism Services The users of tourism services can be categorized in a number of ways.
One such way of classifying the users is by dividing th
We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
With us you are guaranteed of quality work done by our qualified experts.Your information and everything that you do with us is kept completely confidential.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
The Product ordered is guaranteed to be original. Orders are checked by the most advanced anti-plagiarism software in the market to assure that the Product is 100% original. The Company has a zero tolerance policy for plagiarism.Read more
The Free Revision policy is a courtesy service that the Company provides to help ensure Customer’s total satisfaction with the completed Order. To receive free revision the Company requires that the Customer provide the request within fourteen (14) days from the first completion date and within a period of thirty (30) days for dissertations.Read more
The Company is committed to protect the privacy of the Customer and it will never resell or share any of Customer’s personal information, including credit card data, with any third party. All the online transactions are processed through the secure and reliable online payment systems.Read more
By placing an order with us, you agree to the service we provide. We will endear to do all that it takes to deliver a comprehensive paper as per your requirements. We also count on your cooperation to ensure that we deliver on this mandate.Read more